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Volume X 

Number ,o HARCH J, I9O3 



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CHARITIES 



A WEEKLY REVIEW OF LOCAL AND GENERAL PHILANTHROPY 



THE TEN BILLS OF THE TENEMENT BUILDERS. 

On the face of it, the proposed bill is an evidence of 
greed. — william s. rainsford. 

These bills all have plainly written upon them the one 
word, Retrogression. — felix adler. 

Any substantial vitiation of the tenement- house laws 
will create indignation. — f. norton goddard. 

Bad as conditions have been, these bills would make 
them infinitely worse. — Josephine shaw lowell. 

impudent and reckless are the words best applied to 
many of the measures. — richard watson gilder. 

A return to former conditions would be reactionary, 
imbecile, and well=nigh criminal. — mornay williams. 

It is a bill to colonize prostitutes in tenement=houses 
and to burn and kill tenants' babies. — jacob riis. 



NEW YORK 
THE CHARITY ORGANIZATION SOCIETY 

105 BAST 22d STREET 

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In a long letter to Mrs. Van Vorst, reprinted as a preface to the 
book, Mr. Roosevelt expresses his appreciation of the material and 
his sense of the " race suicide " problem to which the narrative 
calls attention. 







FIFTH THOUSAND 



The Woman Who Toils 

The Experiences of Two Gentlewomen as Factory Girls 

By Mrs. John Van Vorst and Marie Van Vorst 



CONTENTS 

Introductory 
In a Pittsburjr Factory 
Perry, a New York Mill Town 
Making Clothing in Chicago 
What It All Means 
By Mrs. John Van Vorst 

A Maker of Shoes at Lynn 
The Southern Cotton Mills 
Child Labor in the South 
By Marib Van Vorst 



Size, 5^x8^ 

Pages, about 300 

Binding, cloth 

Illustrations, 16 

From photographs and 
drawings 

Price, net, $i„ 50. Post- 
age, 14 cents 



F*HIS remarkable 
-*■ volume contains 
the experiences of two 
women, both trained 
writers, who set out to 
discover by actual ex- 
perience the condi- 
tions of American 
working girls. In a 
Pittsburg pickle fac- 
tory, in a mill town " 
of New York, among the clothing makers of Chicago, the Lynn 
makers of shoes, the hands of the Southern cotton mills— the facts 
about the working women are given. The plain truth is set down 
without sensationalism ; and the conclusions which follow inevit- 
ably from reading this record are far-reaching indeed. 

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY 

34 Union Square, E., New York 



Please mention Charities when writing to advertisers. 



Volume X 



Editor 
EDWARD T. DEVINE 



FREDERICK HOWARD WINES 
JEFFREY R. BRACKETT 
JOHN GRAHAM BROOKS 
JOHN H. FINLEY 



CHARITIES 



|MARCH 7, 1903 

Associate Editors 

ROBERT W. HEBBERD EDWARD EVERETT HALE 

HASTINGS H. HART FRANCIS G. PEABODY 

C. L. STONAKER CHARLES W. BIRTWELL 

L. D. DRAKE S. J. BARROWS 



Number 1 O 



Assistant Editor 
PAUL U. KELLOGG 



HOMER FOLKS 
H. B. FRISSELL 
PHILIP W. AYRES 
W. FRANK PERSONS 



CONTENTS 



203 THE ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

203 ON ONE CONDITION 

204 BEGGARY IN BALTIMORE 

204 NEW WORKERS IN CHARITV 

205 WISCONSIN UNIVERSITY SETTLEMENT 

205 THE CHILD LABORERS OF THE STREET— 
THE NEW YORK BILLS 

207 THE WINTER IN EUROPE— A CONTRAST 

215 OPPOSITION OF EAST SIDE ORGANIZATIONS 

244 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

245 LOOSE THREADS IN A SKEIN 



209 



216 



219 



WHAT THEY THINK OF TENE- 
MENT-LAW TINKERING. 

SOCIAL SERVICE AT HARVARD. 

FOR AMERICANS IN PROCESS. 

NOTES OF AN AMATEUR WAY- 
FARER. 

BENJAMIN C. MARSH, 221 

THE DUTIES OF THE INDIVID- 
UAL AND THE GOVERNMENT 
IN THE COMBAT OF TUBER- 
CULOSIS. 

S. A. KNOPF, M.D., 225 

" FAKE " INSTALMENT BUSINESS 
AND ITS SOCIAL CONSE- 
QUENCES. 

HENRY R. MUSSEY, 236 



Charities is a weekly review of local and general philanthropy, published by The Charity 
Organization Society of New York City. The monthly magazine numbers appear on the first 
Saturday of each month and take the place of the issue for that week. 

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to The Charity Organization Society, 105 East Twenty-second Street, New York City. 



Committee of Publication 



ROBERT W. de FOREST 
ROBERT TREAT P/INE 



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Greatest Record 

in the History of this 
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60 

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Millions 

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LIFE INSURANCE ISSUED AND PAID FOR 

during 1902, including Ordinary Insurance (#87,000, 000), over 
ASSETS, end of 1902, over .... 

INCOME, during 1902, over .... 
PAID POLICY-HOLDERS, during .902, over . 

SURPLUS, over 

POLICIES IN FORCE, nearly . 

INCREASE IN PAID-FOR INSURANCE in Force, over 1Q8 

MAKING THE GRAND TOTAL OF 

Paid-for Insurance in Force over 800 Millions 

Paid Policy-holder* in 27 Year5, nearly 68 Millions 

Features of the Year's Administration were 

Marked Reduction in Expense Rate. Increased Dividends to Policy-Holders. 

The Progressive Management and the Judicious Care of, and Liberality in Dealing with, 
Policy-holders* Interests, have made this 

ONE OF THE GREAT LIFE INSURANCE COMPANIES OF THE WORLD 

Write for Information cf Policies or Agencies, Dept.1]l 



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CHARITIES 

A WEEKLY REVIEW OF LOCAL AND GENERAL PHILANTHROPY 

Published Every Saturday Two Dollars a Year 



Vol. X 



March 7, 1903 



No. 10 



Th We are now in position 

Atlanta to take a good look back- 

Conference. ^^ ^ ^ jj^^ .^ 

tional Conference — the proceedings hav- 
ing been published — and a good look for- 
ward to the Atlanta Conference for which 
preparations are well advanced. One 
member of the conference recalls to the 
editor its origin — as an offshoot of the 
American Social Science Association, 
drawing the first moral that it is wise not 
to allow the discussions to degenerate into 
petty debate of details — especially of 
such details as are of only local interest. 

Let the minds of the members of the 
conference seek to grapple with the pro- 
founder questions as well. Why is it, for 
example, that such an amazing number 
of able-bodied men, the natural bread- 
winners of their families, husbands — 
house-bands — are abandoning their wives 
and children, especially at the very crisis 
of family life when children are born? 
Head the excellent special reports pub- 
lished by the Associated Charities of Bos- 
ton, and the Society for Organizing 
Charity in Baltimore. Study facts about 
the dependent families whom you may 
know, and come to the conference to give 
information and to seek instruction on 
the subject. 

Think also of the existing penal sys- 
tem. Is the time ripe for insisting upon 
cutting away, root and branch, the whole 
scheme of graded punishment for graded 
offenses, and substituting a consistent 
and national plan of reformation of such 
as are reclaimable, and segregation of the 
remainder? What is the fundamental 
objection, if there is any, to the prison 
contract system — to the jail system, and 
even to the probation system — if, we re- 
peat, there is any? Write early to Joseph 
P. Byers, general secretary of the con- 
203 



ference, Jeffersonville, Ind., and get the 
announcements as they appear. The dates 
are May 6-12, and the place of meeting 
Atlanta, G-a. 

We observe that Controller 
CoHdiiton. Grout has recommended an 
extension of the subsidy, or 
contract system, by paying to all institu- 
tions not now receiving it a per capita 
allowance to cover the expense of ele- 
mentary education. This is advocated 
on the ground, among others, that the 
State Board of Charities now requires 
such education, but chiefly on the ground 
that there is discrimination against 
Roman Catholic institutions in this re- 
spect and that if the others get it the 
Catholics are entitled to it likewise. 

It may be remarked in passing that the 
growth of payments to private institu- 
tions for care and maintenance, now 
amounting to $2,000,000 annually, had a 
somewhat similar history. One Protestant 
institution received an appropriation, 
whereupon a basis was found for similar 
appropriations to Catholic and Hebrew 
institutions. There was apparently no 
one to raise the question as to whether the 
demands from the new sources might not 
rather be a reason for revising the origi- 
nal program. Or if such an one had 
arisen, he would have been charged 
promptly with sectarian prejudice in that 
he said nothing in opposition to the first 
appropriation until it was proposed to 
make the others. 

In the same way, there are to-day some 
very long-headed advocates of the secta- 
rian division of the public school funds, 
who see in the grants now made to the 
day schools of the Children's Aid Society 
and the American Female Guardian So- 
ciety a precedent to which they may appeal 



204 



Charities 



irresistibly at some time in the future, 
and who are therefore well content to 
have them in their present anomalous 
situation. 

What shall we say, therefore, to the 
present proposition that $150,000 more 
shall be paid to the institutions to enable 
them to do what they have heretofore 
neglected, or done at their own expense, 
or done from the allowance made them 
for care and maintenance. In spite of 
what has been said we are in favor of the 
making of such an appropriation, if it 
can be clone legally, or, if not, changing 
the law to enable it to be done. An in- 
crease in the per capita allowance under 
existing conditions need not be accompa- 
nied by an increase in the institutional 
populations, and may be a means of miti- 
gating some of the recognized institu- 
tional evils. It is a monstrous injustice 
not to give an elementary education to the 
children who are public charges, and if 
the controller is satisfied that the present 
allowance is not sufficient to provide for 
it, the rate should be increased. This is 
especially the case since the subsidy sys- 
tem has destroyed the possibility of secur- 
ing philanthropic gifts for the purpose. 
Let one absolutely essential condition, 
however, be recognized. Let the Board of 
Education supervise the schools, examine 
the children, and certify the teachers. 
On no other conditions should any public 
money be used for elementary education 
in the public schools or elsewhere. 

An order issued by the 
JS, Board of Police Commis- 

sioners of Baltimore bear- 
ing upon street begging and vagrants will, 
according to Marshal Farnan, be carried 
out literally. The marshal believes 
that there are at least 200 street beggars 
plying their trade in Baltimore, the ma- 
jority of them working in the central 
portion of the city. This statement does 
not mean that there are that number of 
men and women begging in the center of 
the city eveTy day, but that such a num- 
ber employs begging as a means of sub- 
sistence, and selects this as the most fer- 
tile field. The records of the police de- 
partment do not show a single case in 
which complaint against a beggar was 
was made by a woman. Policemen and 



citizens generally have been, the one lax 
in their duty to arrest, the other unwill- 
ing to appear in court. It is an incident 
of local history in Baltimore that two 
years ago the police made a raid on a 
beggars' resort on Camden Street. When 
the prisoners, men and women, were lined 
up in front of the desk at the Western 
Police Station, it was found that the offi- 
cers in the discharge of their duty had 
performed not one, but many, miracles. 
Men who, in the words of the Baltimore 
News, had been blind when they begged 
on Lexington Street early in the morn- 
ing were able to see ; lame men whose dis- 
torted limbs, swathed in bandages, had 
drawn pennies from the public but a 
few hours before, were able to walk; a 
"crippled coal miner whose left arm had 
been torn off in a mine explosion/' stood 
sullen and profane while an officer un- 
wound the bandages from the supposed 
injured member, and disclosed a whole, 
but filthy, arm. 

"No sympathy is due the professional 
beggar/' says Marshal Farnan, "and cer- 
tainly no police officer should counte- 
nance the presence and operations of 
any of them on his beat, whether the of- 
fender be a man or a woman. I have 
told the district captains to warn their 
men that negligence in regard to beg- 
gars will be rigorously dealt with, and 
the delinquents will be taken before the 
Board of Commissioners and charged 
with neglect of duty. As a rule, the man 
or woman who really deserves and needs 
charity will not seek it on the public 
streets." 

„ u/ , On the education of new 

New Workers . . 

in workers m charity, the re- 

Charity - port of the Philadelphia 
Society for Organizing CharhVy may well 
be quoted: 

"Dr. S. Weir Mitchell says of the skil- 
ful physician that not to know is to him 
a form of unhappiness, and then, in an- 
other passage of this same essay on the 
physician, he adds, 'Charity you should 
expect from him, for the heart is open 
to him as it is to no other, and knowledge, 
large knowledge, is the food which nour- 
ishes charity in the tender-hearted/ The 
same is true of the trained charity work- 
er; larger knowledge makes him more 
considerate, more willing to make allow- 



Child Laborers of the Street 



205 



anees. The high and dry type of charity 
^\ orker, who spent his days in labeling 
people 'worthy' and 'unworthy/ and in 
giving the 'worthy' inadequate doles of 
provisions, was the product of insufficient 
training. He was not necessarily a hard 
man at all, hut often he did not know 
what to do, and he tried to hide the fact 
behind a pompous and self-assertive man- 
ner. In a society which makes a specialty 
of taking trouble for the poor, training 
is a matter of the first importance, there- 
fore, and we have continued our plan, 
begun two years ago, of seeking special 
subscriptions to pay the cost of placing 
all new workers under our General Sec- 
retary for a course of mot less than six 
months' training 'before giving them posi- 
tions of responsibility in our districts. 
One of our workers was also awarded a 
scholarship in the School of Philanthropy 
this year, for which we are indebted to 
the New York Charity Organization So- 
ciety. Three of our districts are now in 
charge of superintendents who have re- 
ceived our full training, and other work- 
ers are now 'being trained. 

"The education of paid workers is, how- 
ever, only one side of the problem. Our 
work is always- bringing to light needs 
that cannot he met by the services of any 
official, however devoted. We are most 
anxious to give the younger generation a 
chance to become well-trained volunteer 
workers among the poor, and one of the 
encouragements of the year has been the 
increasing number of intelligent and 
earnest young people who have come to us 
for guidance in their charity work." 



Wisconsin Uni- 
versity Settlement. 



The University of Wiscon- 
sin has entered the settle- 
ment field, and has estab- 
lished a neighborhood center in Milwau- 
kee, which, from the educational stand- 
point, can, perhaps, be looked upon, in the 
words of the warden, as a "point of contact 
for laboratory work in sociology." 

A year ago a fellowship in sociology 
was contributed by Milwaukee business 
men, provided part of the fellow's time 
was spent in that city in field work. Under 
this fellowship, B. H. Hibbard, now in- 
structor in sociology and economics at the 
State University of Iowa, made a general 
survey of the Milwaukee field for locating 



the Wisconsin settlement. During the 
summer an association was incorporated, 
with fifteen directors, ten of them resi- 
dents of Milwaukee, and the remaining 
five actively connected with the university 
at Madison. The association has leased, 
with option of purchase, the old Coleman 
homestead, First Avenue and Becher 
Street. It is in the center of Milwaukee's 
greatest manufacturing district, but the 
building itself had not lost entirely its 
character of yesterday; a rambling coun- 
try seat of generous proportions, stand- 
ing in the center of a well-shaded block, 
adjoining Kosciosko Park. Within four 
or five blocks of the settlement are glass 
works, steel works, and many other fac- 
tories, and the Kinnickinic Harbor. The 
South Side, of which Coleman House is 
the center, in a neighborhood dense with 
Poles, Bohemians, and Germans, has an 
industrial population of 100,000, one-third 
the entire population of Milwaukee. 
There is already a vigorous demand for 
classes in English, sewing, cooking and 
manual training, and these will at once 
be opened in addition to the day nursery, 
kindergarten, poor man's lawyer, and 
university extension. Work for boys is 
specially needed. The officers of the set- 
tlement association are: President, Dr. 
E. A. Birge, acting president of the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin; vice-president, Dr. 
J. A. Peels, the Milwaukee Regent of the 
university; secretary and treasurer, G. C. 
Vogel, a Wisconsin alumnus of promi- 
nence in Milwaukee; Mr. and Mrs. H. H. 
Jacobs, both Wisconsin graduates, moved 
into the house in November, Mr. Jacobs 
as warden of -the settlement. Mr. and 
Mrs. James E. Boyle, social economic fel- 
low at Wisconsin University, and Miss 
Lou Hicks are the other residents. Prof. 
Richard T. Ely has taken an active in- 
terest in the settlement. 



Child Laborers of the Street— The 
New York Bills. 

The agitation for child-labor legisla- 
tion, which is progressing in Pennsyl- 
vania, Illinois, New Jersey, and a half 
dozen other states, has distinctive notes 
in different localities. 

In New York, perhaps the sharpest de- 



206 



Charities 



bate is over the bills which would reach 
newsboys, messenger boys, and other 
small street traders, as well as the chil- 
dren of the mills and factories. 

This was the fighting ground Wednes- 
day before a legislative hearing at Albany 
before the Senate Judiciary Committee. 
Here the notion that boy street life is a 
good kindergarten for the future business 
man was met by clear-cut facts collected 
by Ernest Poole of the University Settle- 
ment, who has "carried the banner" with 
the "newsies" and knows them first hand, 
by theNrecords of the New York Juvenile 



There was opposition to the bill from 
Elbridge T. Gerry, former president of 
the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty 
to Children. "The bill would render the 
unhappy boy's life even more miserable 
than it is at present," he said. "He is 
first to be dosed with education, then to 
be branded with a license." 

Mornay Williams took exception to the 
views of Mr. Gerry. "Both Mr. Gerry 
and myself are licensed to practice law," 
said he, "but we do not regard ourselves 
as 'branded' thereby, or marked as suspi- 
cious persons." 




Taken by Ernest Poole, at 2 a.m., Nov. 25,1902, on a Street near Newspaper Row. 



Asylum, which show another phase of 
their career, by the statistics of the Child 
Labor Committee, and by the urgent 
appeal of philanthropists and labor 
leaders. 

"Think of your own children, under 
ten years of age, waiting at four o'clock 
in the morning for the early newspapers !" 
cried Dr. Felix Adler. "What kind of 
school is that for children?" he con- 
tinued. "If you tell me of the fine men 
that have been newsboys, I will admit the 
exception, and refer you to the men who 
have been stronger after severe illnesses; 
nevertheless you would not subject men 
to illness or disease as a means to health. 
These are instances of the survival of the 
fittest, not of the normal results of un- 
favorable conditions." 



The contention of John D. Lindsay of 
the Gerry Society that the bill was legally 
impracticable and probably unconstitu- 
tional was answered by Samuel Gompers, 
president of the American Federation of 
Labor. "This committee is competent to 
meet the technical objections," he said. 
"We are not straining at gnats. We want 
the substance, not the legal shadow in this 
matter, and we look to this legislature 
to remove the blot from the state and the 
shame from its business life of compelling 
or permitting the babes to fight for their 
living on the streets. We want our boys 
and girls to become virile men and women, 
and the streets and the clamor of traffic 
are not the schools in which to train 
such." 



The Winter in Europe — A Contrast 



207 



The Winter in Europe— A Contrast. 

There are dire reports from London 
and from other parts of England as to 
the number of the unemployed. The La- 
bour Gazette, published by the Board of 
Trade, gives statistics which indicate 
that no considerable number of skilled 
working men are out of employment, and 
refers to a letter by Mr. Loch 1 to the 
Times, in which it is said that nowhere is 
the distress "such as cannot be met by 
local agencies, properly supported." This 
view the Municipal Journal accepts as 
true, at any rate "for the moment." 

At this distance, and with our ideas of 
local and individual self-help, even Mr. 
Loch's reassurances do not sound so re- 
assuring. Local agencies, properly sup- 
ported, should be able to do a great deal, 
and if there is really any doubt that the 
present distress may create demands be- 
yond the powers of such agencies so that 
national relief measures may become nec- 
essary, the situation must be serious. 

The method by which the present situa- 
tion has been sharply brought home to 
the English public is the daily march 
through the streets of London of a throng 
of the unemployed. The Spectator com- 
ments on these parades in the following 
interesting paragraphs : 

The processions of the "unemployed" 
bid fair to become a regular incident in 
our street life. They go on day after day 
— orderly, on good terms with the police, 
and not in the least anxious to provoke a 
breach of the peace. Indeed, it is hardly 
too much to say of many of those who 
take part in them that they have never 
done such continuous work for so many 
days together. Their habits and training 
are not seemingly ill-adapted for walking, 
though they undoubtedly unfit a large 
portion of them for any other form of 
exercise. Apparently they never have 
anything to do, or if they have it is of 
that convenient order which can always 
be put off to some future season. Here 
and there, perhaps, a man who is really 
out of work — a man, that is, who was in 
work yesterday and will be in work. again 
to-morrow — may be found in the ranks, 
but ordinarily they are composed of that 



hopeless type which has so long lost the 
will to work that it has by degrees lost 
the power also. Here and there, again, 
are some of a lower class still, men who 
have ceased to pay any minute attention 
to the dividing line between poverty and 
crime. But these are only exceptions. 

The misfortune is that though these 
processions may be harmless in them- 
selves, they are not harmless in their con- 
sequences. They do get some money from 
the public. Now, on this there are two 
things to be said. The first is that those 
who give have no guarantee whatever that 
what they give goes to the unemployed. 
We do not mean that there is any unfair- 
ness in the actual distribution at the end 
of the day. Probably those who form the 
procession take care that each man gets his 
share. What we mean is that all the prob- 
abilities, and such positive evidence as can 
be obtained, go to show that the great 
majority of the processionists are only un- 
employed in the sense that walking the 
streets is the sole labor they have any 
taste for, and that somehow or other they 
seem to make a livelihood, such as it is, in 
this way. The second thing that has to 
be said is that even if all the procession- 
ists belonged to the class to which they 
claim to belong, the money given to them 
would be given in the worst way and with 
the fewest safeguards. Judging from 
their youth, we should be inclined to say 
that many of the men are unmarried, and 
so better able than the married to keep 
body and soul together. But even if we 
concede that the test may be misleading, 
as no doubt it often is among the poor, 
and that the majority of them have wives 
and children starving at home, the dis- 
tribution at the end of the day runs great 
risk of being abused. It may reach the 
home, but also it may be spent on the 
road home, and on that road lie many 
public houses. And yet people will al- 
ways be found who will give money in 
this fashion unless some better fashion 
can be suggested to them. They know 
that the ordinary channels of relief are 
open, but somehow they do not associate 
them with the unemployed. What they 
want is to have the assurance that the 
almoners, whoever they may be, whom 



1 Mr. Loch's views are admirably expressed in an article which will appear in the Departmental Number of 
Charities March 21. 



2O0 



Charities 



they give their money to are in touch, not 
with poverty generally, but with the form 
of poverty that they hear of as being 
present at this time. 

They know, of course, that the commit- 
tees of the Charity Organisation Society 
give relief in their several districts, but 
all their ideas of the society's work belong 
to a different order, and suggest only 
much discrimination, prolonged inquir- 
ies, and perhaps ultimate rejection as 
undeserving. At the beginning of the 
winter the bishop of London advised that 



Post has published for our edification an 
editorial sermon on the temptations and 
disadvantages of prosperity. 

French papers are said to be filled with 
accounts of the widespread suffering in 
Brittany caused by the failure of the sar- 
dine fisheries. From three of the illus- 
trated periodicals, Public Opinion quotes 
pathetic accounts of the misery and star- 
vation due to this failure of the sea to 
yield her usual largesse to the hand of the 
fisherman. This distress, and that which 
is reported from England, afford a con- 




DlSTTUBUTION OF FlSHES IN BRITTANY. 



-From Public Opinion. 



money intended for the unemployed 
should be sent to the Metropolitan So- 
ciety for the Relief and Distress, and 
within a few days or hours the society re- 
ceived £4,000 in contributions.- But this 
was only while the episcopal recommenda- 
tion Avas fresh in mind. Most of us 
have by this time forgotten the society's 
name. 

It is not from England alone that there 
come reports of industrial distress, con- 
trasting strangely with the prevailing 
prosperity which in this country is so 
general and of so great and apparent 
permanence that the New York Evening 



trast in that the one is a direct effect of 
an intelligible natural cause. 

Meanwhile, reports continue to come 
of suffering from famine in Finland and 
the northern part of the Scandanavian 
peninsula. Organized effort to raise funds 
for relief has met with considerable suc- 
cess in America, especially in the cities 
of the Northwest. 

"I have never seen a day when I have 
witnessed so much misery as I have to- 
day," wrote the Rev. J. Kilburn, pastor 
of the English-American Church in St. 
Petersburg, during a visit to the famine 
area. 



WHAT THEY THINK OF TENEMENT-LAW TINKERING. 

"They can't have such infamous bills, law and opinions which show the esti- 
of course; but they would if they dared mate of them of men and women promi- 
and if the city kept quiet." It was whip- nent in philanthropic and civic work — 
snapper sentences like this, informal and members of the tenement-house commis- 
insistent, which have accompanied ex- sions, physicians, clergymen, attorneys,, 
pressions of opinion sent in reply to a builders, workers in settlement and] 
request from Charities — opinions of the charity. It is a grand jury which looks 
bills thus far introduced in the New York at the question from a variety of view- 
legislature to amend the tenement-house points, but its verdict is unanimous.. 

Impudent and reckless are the ivords best applied to many of 
the measures introduced at Albany to break down the tenement- 
house enactments note on our statute books. They show a 
cynical disregard for not only the interests of the mass of 
our people— for their health, comfort, and morals — their very 
life — but also for their intelligence. It is gratifying to see that 
the dwellers in the tenements are aroused, and that every man in 
the legislature who strikes at the ivelfare of the people by voting 
for such measures will " hear from his constituents' 7 clearly v 

effectually, and memorably. 

RICHARD WATSON GILDER. 

Once a bill was sneaked through the legislature to exempt the 
old five-family liouses from the tenement law and reached 
Governor Flower, who stopped it. In his files at Albany 
Governor Odell iv ill find it endorsed: "Amu?iable to understand 
this bill, with every argument against it and not one for it." 

It is easy to understand the Marshall bill. It should be 

entitled : "A bill to colonize prostitution in tenement-houses, to 

burn and kill tenants' babies and put the people's homes in peril 

for the builder's profit." But who would vote for it is hard to 

understand. Whoever does must carry to his political grave the 

brand of being either fool or scoundrel. 

J. A. BUS. 

(BY TELEGRAM FROM MARYVILLE, MO.) 

In my judgment all of the amendments to the tenement-house 
laiv proposed in the Matthews, Marshall, Ellis, Everett, and 
Wolf bills are objectionable and should be defeated. The im- 
provements in the tenement-house laws in New York state are 
among the most satisfactory achievements of legislation in the 
past two decades, the legislation having proved both practicable 
and remedial. A return to former conditions would be reac- 
tionary, imbecile, and well-nigh criminal, as the bad environment 
of the unregulated tenement is perhaps the chief factor in the 
promotion of unthrift and uncleanliness , a prime cause of the 
dissemination of diseases, and the nuturer if not the parent 

of immorality and crime. 

MORN AY WLLLIAMS. 

209 



210 Charities 

At the close of a health talk given to some kindergarten 
mothers, a young woman asked, " Why don't the Women's Club 
get together and see to it that no woman is compelled to live in a 
dark kitchen ?" 

Ail the helpful influences that are thrown around those ivho 
live in tenements cannot, for a moment, compare in efficiency 
with the light of heaven which should be free to all. 

The law as it noiv stands brings far too little light and air 
and. comfort into the homes of ivorking people, and many of 
us hope that the public sense of justice will soon require much 
stricter and more adequate tenement-house laws. 

JANE ELIZABETH BOBBINS, M.D. 

/ have a foreman, owner of a six-family tenement-house in 
Brooklyn, who is about to undergo considerable expense to meet 
the requirements of the new tenement-house department. He 
considers this outlay a good investment, which will repay him in 
better rents, and remarks that the people that would have the 
old law back don't want to give a man a decent chance to live. 

In fact, I find a good many of my acquaintances among 

ivorkingmen are acquiring this neivfiedged notion that living 

rooms ought to have sunlight, air, and other similar frills. It 

is ivell that friends of the old regime, of darkness and filth and 

tivelve per cent, are taking prompt action, for we all know 

that notions among the tenement-house population are terribly 

persistent, once rooted. 

HERBEBT S. BROWN. 

It is not for a moment to be supposed that any one of the 
pending bills relating to tenement-houses could possibly pass, 
if the members of the legislature can be made to understand the 
single appalling fact that not only do they do away with many 
of the most important improvements provided by the present 
tenement-house law, but that (by changing the definition of a 
tenement-house so as to exempt from the operation of the law 
buildings ivhich contain less than five families ) , they ivould also, 
for persons living in these exempted buildings, destroy all the 
safeguards which have been created by legislation since 1867. 

Bad as conditions have been during the past thirty-six years, 
these bills would actually make them infinitely worse for hun- 
dreds of thousands of families, and would, undoubtedly, raise 
the death-rate to ichat it used to be in this city, and entail upon 
our poor people the consequent aud inevitable illness and suffer- 
ing that must accompany a high death-rate. 

JOSEPHINE SHA W LOWELL. 

I am utterly opposed to all the suggested amendments in the 
interests of those who desire to profit out of the tenement-house 
population. I believe that it is of the greatest importance that 



What They Think of Tenement-Law Tinkering 2 1 1 

■the building of tenements in Brooklyn be rigidly regulated to 
prevent such results as are apparent in the Borough of 
Manhattan. Perhaps the law's greatest usefulness is in the 
prevention of the building of unhealthy and unsanitary 
tenement-houses. Here in Buffalo, with a population of about 
four hundred thousand, the evil is not supposed to have reached 
great proportions, yet recent investigations have disclosed the 
fact that there are over four thousand tenement-houses here, and 
that every provision of the tenement-house law, as it now 
stands, is being violated. The general sentiment in this city, 
I am quite confident, is in favor of stringent laivs which shall 
prevent the possibility of such conditions as exist in New York. 

WM. A. DOUGLAS. 

BUFFALO, N. Y. 

A large part of the people living in tenement-houses under- 
stand to-day the question of tenement-house reform better than 
■is perhaps generally supposed. They knoiv they have received 
great benefits, and they will back the people ivho go to the front 
to demand that further benefits be conferred rather than those 
who may think it expedient to concede some part of those already 
secured. 

I believe that it can no longer even be maintained to be 
expedient to treat the question of the regulation of tenement- 
houses from any other point of view than the point of view of 
what a city, that wishes to be truly great, owes to itself. 

No other point of view would, at any time, have been righteous, 
and I believe that to-day any other point of view is not even 
politic. Any substantial vitiation of the tenement-house laws 
by the present legislature will create indignation on the part of 
a great many people, tenement-house dwellers and others, 
against the present administration — a result which all friends 
of good government would have cause to deplore. 

As long as Mr. Odell is Governor I believe that tenement- 
house reform is in no danger from its enemies. As to the days 
beyond the limit of his term of office, they may not be evil, or if 
they are we may be equal to it. Sufficient unto the day is the 

evil thereof. 

F. NORTON GODDABD. 

I have already spoken to my people in St. George's Church 
about the proposed change in the tenement-house laiv. I cannot, 
of course, claim the knowledge of an expert, but it seems 
abundantly evident to any ordinarily intelligent man that the 
changes proposed can work notliing but harm to those of our 
neighbors who are least able to defend themselves from extortion. 

On the face of it, the proposed bill is an evidence of greed. 

We want more air. Human nature, taxed and strained as it is 

in the case of the wage workers in the great city, has not a fair 

show in the tenement-houses, even as under the present laws 



2 1 2 Charities 

they are built. No one wlio constantly visits the tenement- 
houses can doubt this. But more than that, it seems to me thai 
that large class of investors ivho have accepted our present laws 
as a bona-fide expression of public opinion not likely to be altered, 
have proceeded to build under them, ivill have an injustice done 
to them, if others who are less scrupulous shall now be allowed to 
put up buildings which unquestionably would pay a larger per- 
centage on capital invested. 

The proposed laiv is as unfair to the honest investor as to the 
oppressed tenant. I should oppose it with all my strength. It 

is greedy, unjust, inhuman. 

W. S. RAINSFORD. 

There is just one reason for the attempts to alter, amend, and 
void the existing tenement-house laws. 

There are many explanations, but back of them all the motive 
is greed. The present laws work no hardship, no injustice; 
they were intended not to oppress the property owners, not to 
deprive them of legitimately making proper revenues from their 
buildings, but to secure to the tenants what every rent payer is 
entitled to, light, air, and safety. Every amendment proposed 
since the passage of the tenement-house laws has had for its 
purpose the decreasing of the tenants' light, air, or safety, and 
the increasing of the revenues of those who are willing to sacri- 
fice the lives and morals of the tenants that they might profit. 
The tenement-house situation has been investigated, legislated, 
tinkered, and commissioned for fifty years, always with too 
great consideration for the party of greed, and until the present 
laws were passed the conditions grew steadily worse. 

Now that we have a laiv demanding fairly good conditions, 

not ideal by any means, there at once arise opponents who ivish 

to destroy the good that will be done, tvho want to take God's air 

and light away from tenants and, careless of the suffering, 

crime, and death that will inevitably follow, ask the legislature 

to void this law. 

WILLIAMS LANSING. 

What people seem to have forgotten in the recent tenement- 
house discussion is that the present law is itself decidedly a 
compromise measure. The general opinion seems to be that we 
have now about as good a laiv as we can get, whereas the friends 
of the better housing movement realize very distinctly that the 
de Forest Law represents what it is possible to get at the 
present time, rather than any abstractly perfect legislation. 

In our neighborhood, Greenwich Village, owing to the large 
number of old three and four-story buildings, the sanitary con- 
ditions are probably worse than in any other part of the city. 
To remove these buildings from inspection ivould mean their 
steady deterioration. Any amendment that proposes to remove 



What They Think of Tenement- Law Tinkering. 213 

these small old dwellings from the jurisdiction of the Tenement- 
house Department would be a calamity for a large neighborhood, 
not only on account of the sanitaru conditions that would follow 
lack of inspection, but also on account of the probable increase in 
immorality that would take place. To tamper with the present 
provisions of the law in regard to air, space, light, sanitation, 
construction, and inspection would be to menace the well-being 
of our neighborhood, which would be resented by every public- 
spirited citizen in this locality. We have found a widespread 
opposition to any of the amendments so far proposed, quite irre- 
spective of political party or economic status. If concessions 
must be made to Brooklyn interests, our neighbors hope that' 
such legislation will not affect this district. 

MARY K. SIMKHOVITCH. 
GREENWICH HOUSE. 



The bills to amend the tenement-house law so far introduced 
in the legislature should stay where they are, in committee. 
Then, in my judgment, the local administration should intro- 
duce a simple bill to remedy any defects in the present law 
ivhich the careful investigations of the department into existing 
conditions may have shown to be desirable. 

As a whole, the tenement-house laiv has approved itself to an 
extent seldom, if ever, accorded to similar legislation in any 
state or country. It is fortunate that no amendment seems to 
be necessary for neiv six and seven-story buildings such as are 
being erected in Manhattan. In Brooklyn, the tenement-house 
population shuns tall houses, and the neiv law has somewhat 
restrained the erection of three and four-story tenements. The 
amendment of 1902 relieved the situation someivhat, and I am 
in favor of some additional modification along the same lines 
concerning size of courts in low buildings. This should en- 
courage the building of low houses rather than tall ones and of 
shallow houses rather than of deep ones. (It is desirable to 
scatter the tenement-house population over as large an area as 
possible, and it is easy to see that a six-story tenement-house 
eigltty-eight feet deep with apartments around a court may 
house four times as many families on the same lot space as a 
three-story house sixty-five feet deep with apartments running 
through from front to rear. It is not possible to secure all the 
desiderata of a home in any tenement-house. You cannot have 
both a large court and a large backyard.) The problem is to 
secure for the tenants the maximum of conditions ivhich make 
for health, safety from, fire, and domestic privacy, without 
forcing costs beyond the means of the average wage-earner. 
That problem must be solved by the friends of the tenement- 
house law and not by its enemies. 

ALFRED T. WHITE. 



214 Charities 

It is no exaggeration to say that horror and consternation fill 
our minds over the attacks upon the tenement-house law in 
those monstrosities, the Everett, Wolf, Marshall, Matthews and 
Ellis bills, now pending in the legislature. 

These are not really attempts to "amend" the present benefi- 
cent law ; they are attempts to sweep out of sight the tenement- 
house law, which now safeguards the public health by its 
requirements for a minimum of light, air, and protection 
against fire. 

As you know, our staff of trained nurses and lay workers has 
gone in and out of the tenements for the last nine years. 

In that time we have become only too familiar with every 
hideous phase of the life of those who must toil, who must live 
near their work, and who are doomed by mercenary builders to 
live under conditions shocking to decency, dangerous to health, 
and against which they are so helpless that one would think this 
helplessness ivould excite pity even in the most hardened mind. 

In these dark suites, permitted by the Ellis amendment, ice 
have seen human beings dying of phthisis, diphtheria, typhoid, 
and other diseases which propagate in darkness. 

In the three-story wooden tenements allowed by the Ellis bill 
we have seen our neighbors burned alive like rats in a trap, 
ivhile those who would give help were helpless. 

On hot summer days we- have gone through the yards, where 
the unspeakably vile-smelling privy vaults and school-sinks 
allowed by the Marshall amendment pollute the air. Dozens of 
children have no other play-place. Do these people, whose chil- 
dren spend the summers at seashore or mountain, think of these 
things'? Perhaps these very builders and proprietors are 
parents, and their own children are brought up in carefully 
chosen surroundings. 

Can it be possible that, in this day of popular science, ignorance 
so gross and glaring can rule the hygiene of the cities f Can we 
afford to reproduce the sanitation of the Middle Ages in our 
citizens' surroundings ? Surely self -protection alone, if nothing 
else, should force the defeat of these bills to breed disease, ruin 
morals, and enfeeble the children of our crowded quarters. 

L. L. DOCK. 

NURSES' SETTLEMENT. 

I wish to express my entire concurrence in the statement that 
"the supreme folly of the authors of the numerous bills in 
attacking the vital features of the tenement-house law must 
now be apparent even to themselves." The Matthews bill, the 
Ellis bill and the others all have plainly toritten upon them 
the one word, Retrogression. For years and years the better 
element among our citizens have labored patiently and earnestly 
to improve the condition of the poorer class who are compelled 



What They Think of Tenement-Law Tinkering 



215 



to live in tenement-houses. To bring up a family under 
tenement-house conditions decently and respectably is at best no 
easy task, but something has been gained, some of the worst evils 
have been abolished or abated, and the heavy burden of the poor 
has been made somewhat lighter. The bills now before the legis- 
lature, taken collectively, undertake to undo these results, to 
withdraw thousands of houses from sanitary supervision and 
protection, to permit a return to the old insalubrious and dan- 
gerous air-shafts, to allow unhealthy cellar-rooms to be occupied 
almost entirely underground and to increase the peril of fire for 
the inmates of such houses. The mere recital of these purposes 
is sufficient to insure their indignant condemnation. I cannot 
conceive for a moment that the legislature will lend an ear to 
those who bring forward such unheard-of propositions ; nor 
do I believe that the citizens of the Empire State would hesitate 
to pass sharp judgment on any legislator who should lend 
himself to aid or abet such iniquitous designs against the 

public welfare. 

FELIX ABLER. 



OPPOSITION OF EAST SIDE ORGANIZATIONS. 



No less emphatic condemnation of the 
proposed tenement-house law amendments 
found utterance Thursday noon, at a hear- 
ing in the City Hall given by Mayor Low 
to the East Side City Club. Twenty- 
four settlements, labor unions, churches, 
civic societies, and other bodies were rep- 
resented by delegates, though hardly 
more than that number of hours had 
passed since the first notification of the 
meeting. Hundreds of thousands of sig- 
natures, it was announced, had been 
placed on petitions opposing inadvised 
amendment of the statutes. 

Opposition was expressed for the East 
Side City Club, the Down Town Ethical 
Society, the People's Institute and a mass 
meeting at the University Settlement. 
The representative of the Janitors' So- 
ciety was no more positive in his antago- 



nism to the measures than the representa- 
tive of the Voice of Labor, a socialistic 
organization which for the first time in 
its history had taken action on such a 
civic question. 

"The tenement-house problem is at the 
root of all our problems," said one speaker. 
"It is back of tuberculosis, back of 
trachoma, back of the loss of family 
life on the East Side. In the halls of the 
tenements I have seen children imitate 
the gestures of the prostitute. It is not 
a matter of dollars and cents with us, but 
of life and morals." 

Mayor Low informed those present that 
the Tenement-house Department is at 
work on a bill which would modify the 
law — advantageously. The administra- 
tion, he assured those present, is opposed 
to any change that would affect the pres- 
ent law in a vital way. 



SOCIAL SERVICE BY HARVARD STUDENTS. 1 



In his monograph, "Supervisory and 
Educational Movements," 2 Dr. Jeffrey 
K. Brackett has presented a summary of 
the instruction given in charity and cor- 
rection, at Harvard University, which 
accurately describes the growth and the 
present method and scope of this course 
of study. It began in the divinity school, 
in 1880, with a course of lectures on 
"The Ethics of the Social Questions/' 
given Tyy the Rev. Francis G-. Peabody 
to students for the ministry. In 1884, it 
was carried over to the general university 
courses, to receive graduate students, 
seniors and juniors. Next year there 
were fifty students from five depart- 
ments of the university. The attendance 
now averages nearly three times that 
number, the majority being seniors. 

The class visits representative chari- 
table and correctional institutions in Bos- 
ton and the vicinity, and each member 
makes a personal study of some one of 
them, upon which he submits a written 
report. "There is in this department/' 
wrote the instructor to Dr. Brackett, '"a 
new opportunity in university instruction. 
With us it has been quite without pre- 
cedent. It summons the young men who 
have been imbued with the principles of 
political economy and of philosophy to 
the practical application of those studies. 
It ought to do what college work rarely 
does — bring a young man's studies near 
to the problem of an American's life." 
Besides the three lectures each week, 
there are books to be read, and much 
stress is laid upon the preparation of re- 
ports of special researches twice in the 
year. These are painstaking studies on 
some special aspect of the general sub- 
jects bearing on the ethics of the family, 
of charity, of the labor question, of the 
-drink question, etc. ; are estimated as one- 
third of the year's work and are carefully 
supervised by the instructors. 

This course of instruction in its re- 
sults and influence is closely related to 
the charitable work undertaken by stu- 
dents of the university. Opportunities 
for philanthropic work have been rapidly 



expanding, and it is estimated that they 
now enlist the services of about twelve 
per cent of the students resident in 
Cambridge. During the year 1894-1895, 
the work was thoroughly systematized 
by means of the organization known as 
the Social Service Committee. This un- 
dertaking was begun by a movement of 
the united religious societies. In Octo- 
ber, 1894, a meeting was held, at which 
President Eliot presided, and the presi- 
dents of the Catholic Club, the St Paul's 
Society, the Christian Association, the 
Oxford Club, and the Religious Union, 
all pledged the support of their societies 
to the new enterprise. It was a practical 
religious union among college men, 
which, as President Eliot said in his 
opening words, "is probably without 
parallel in the history of education." The 
Social Service Committee is a body of 
twenty-four students, together with an 
advisory board of professors, graduates, 
and other persons prominent in charity 
work. Charles W. Birtwell, secretary of 
the Boston Children's Aid Society, was 
at the outset chosen director, and has 
since served in that capacity. The So- 
cial Sendee Committee was assured of a 
suitable equipment for its- activities, 
when, in 1898, the trustees of the bequest 
of Miss Belinda L. Randall voted $10,000 
to the construction of the Phillips Brooks 
House to insure accommodations in that 
building for the committee, and voted 
$5,000 additional as a permanent fund. 
The director or his assistants holds office 
hours in Phillips Brooks House each 
week. Here he consults with men — both 
as individuals and as groups — taking 
into account the student's tastes, his in- 
tended business or profession, and the 
time at his disposal, and he advises from 
time to time .those who are actually at 
work. Thus the office is a kind of clear- 
ing-house of philanthropy, receiving ap- 
plications from young men who wish to 
serve, and receiving on the other hand 
applications from charitable institutions, 
and then adjusting the work to the man 
and the man to the work. Still the work 



J This is the first of a series of articles dealing with social study and service carried on by students of different 
colleges. 2 See Charities, vol. viii., page 332. 

216 



Charities 



2 i 7 



of the committee is largely administra- 
tive, one feature 'being the management 
of the entertainment troupes, which are 
referred to below. 

The secretary of the Social Service Com- 
mittee, Graham E. Taylor, has recently 
prepared a careful statistical account of 
the volume of philanthropic work done 
by Harvard students, and of the chan- 
nels in which it is conducted. This in- 
vestigation showed that 363 students, 
during the month of December, 1902, 
were actively at work in some organized 



engage in it — the personal contact of 
man with men in the ordinary and 
human affairs of a neighborly relation, 
that a sense of intrusion immediately be- 
sets the investigator." 

Of the Harvard men who were known 
to be regularly engaged in volunteer social 
and philanthropic work during December, 
at least twenty-five were working in more 
than one organization. The societies, 
churches, and clubs to which they devote 
their services represent nearly the whole 
range of philanthropic effort. In some of 




T- Wharf Heading Room. 



charity — a census which did not pretend 
to include the many who' render personal 
and occasional service to some church or 
other organization without the medium 
of the student organizations. "The ab- 
sence of any flourish," says Mr. Taylor, 
"the quiet and unassuming way, the lack 
(which almost amounts to a serious 
hindrance in the effectiveness of the work) 
of institutional methods, the personal 
element in the work — these are the char- 
acteristics which give the work its charm 
to the observer. In fact, it is so much 
a matter of the personal life of those who 



these organizations Harvard students 
have entire charge, in others they com- 
prise almost the entire working force, 
while in still others, as the Associated 
Charities and Social Settlements, they ap- 
pear as friendly visitors or teachers. 

Of the religious organizations, the So- 
cial Service Committee excepted, the 
Young Men's Christian Association en- 
gages most directly and extensively in 
philanthropic work. It conducts annu- 
ally a canvass of the freshman class for 
the solicitation of volunteer service, and 
assumes responsibility for the work 



2l8 



Social Service by Harvard Students 



among' the sailors at T wharf, in Boston, 
and for the lately instituted Harvard 
House. The St. Paul's Society, composed 
of the students belonging to the Episcopal 
Church, maintains the Sir Galahad Club, 
in the South End of Boston ; and a group 
of boys' clubs at Brattle Hall, in Cam- 
bridge, an enterprise enlisting the efforts 
of thirteen students. The Sir Galahad 
Club, has a membership of seventy or 
eighty boys, and social and athletic work 
are the main features of the enterprise. 
Twenty Harvard men constitute the corps 
of helpers and are called the "faculty." 
They are divided into six groups, one 
group going to the club each week-day 
night, The Catholic Club and the Re- 
ligious Union do not officially, as organi- 
zations, engage in the direction of social 
work, but members of each are doing 
volunteer social service of many kinds. 

Harvard House, in East Cambridge, 
-shelters an extensive system of clubs and 
classes. Boys' recreation clubs are supple- 
mented by others having industrial fea- 
tures, such as chair-caning, sloyd, etc., 
men's clubs in politics, current events, and 
literature are planned. An interesting fea- 
ture is the service of ladies of the faculty in 
connection with girls' clubs. A reading- 
room and small library are constantly used. 
Of the ninety-two engaged in the work, 
all are Harvard students. 

Prospect Union, Cambridge, has at- 
tained special success in preparing for 
civil service examinations. Of the twenty- 
six teachers and leaders, twenty-three are 
students in the university. "The union 
has a twofold usefulness. On the one 
hand, any workingman living in or near 
Cambridge may, by improving its oppor- 
tunities, acquire such knowledge and men- 
tal discipline as the circumstances of his 
lot have before made impossible to him. 
On the other hand, the student- teachers 
•find that by teaching they, themselves, are 
taught. They get almost more than they 
give. They come to realize the debt of 
obligation the educated man owes to those 
less favored than himself. Each work- 
ingman member pays three dollars a year, 
or twenty-five cents a month." 

Educational classes are likewise con- 
ducted by the Cambridge Social Union. 
'The courses are open to both men and 



women, not to men only, as in the Pros- 
pect Union. The Social Union owns an 
excellent library and reading-room, and 
has organized boys' clubs, women's clubs, 
dancing, and dressmaking classes, an edu- 
cational department and provides social 
entertainments in Brattle Hall. Its build- 
ing at 42 Brattle Street is a center of 
growing activity. Of the 500 members of 
the union some 200 are registered in the 
educational department, the fifty classes 
of which are conducted, for the most part, 
by thirty-five Harvard students. The 
whole number of instructors is forty-four. 

The Harvard entertainment troupes 
are larger this year than ever be- 
fore, and are conducted in a business- 
like manner, with an efficient central 
management. Regular concerts are given 
in the hospitals, almshouses, reform 
schools, prisons, and asylums about Bos- 
ton, and in the social settlements as well. 
Each troupe consists of a few musicians 
and a reader. It has been estimated that 
the aggregate monthly audiences to which 
the entertainments are given number 
1,800 persons. At present there are forty- 
nine members of these troupes, all Har- 
vard men, with another Harvard student 
as central manager. 

A total of 233 Harvard students are 
thus engaged in philanthropic work for 
the management of which they are largely 
responsible, and which is almost entirely 
dependent upon their services. Volunteer 
service is rendered by 130 others to vari- 
ous churches and charitable agencies. Of 
these, fifty-six are engaged in the social 
work of the churches in Boston, Cam- 
bridge, and vicinity; twenty-eight are in- 
terested in the work of social settlements ; 
twenty-four aid in the work of institu- 
tions for industrial training; fourteen are 
friendly visitors for charitable societies; 
and the remainder are ' engaged in the 
work of miscellaneous agencies. 

A special form of work in which Har- 
vard men rendered assistance was the dis- 
tribution of coal to the poor of Boston 
during the recent period of severe cold. 
Their employment varied from clerical 
work in dealing with the applicants to 
driving the teams. This work centered 
at the Hale House. W. F. P. 



FOR AMERICANS IN PROCESS. 



SOUTH BAY UNION — THE NEW NEIGHBORHOOD TOWN HALL OF BOSTON. 



In the vicinity of the upper part of the 
longest tenement-house street in Boston 
much interest has been shown in a 
vehicle — a vehicle surmounted by a large 
transparency which stated in bold type 
that meals are served for ten, fifteen and 
twenty cents in the South Bay Union, the 
new neighborhood town hall at the corner 
of Harrison Avenue and Plympton 
Street. 

From the beginning the erection of this 
building by the South End House Asso- 
ciation has caused much comment. A 
feeling of local pride was stirred with the 
digging of the foundation, for in the eyes 
of the neighborhood it was to be "our 
building." Some people have wondered 
why the building was erected with such 
utter disregard for space and the cost of 
land, for there is a fair-sized courtyard, 
which, though now a heap of mud and 
debris, will in time become a playground 
and flower garden. 

The Union is an admirably planned 
structure that cost $45,000, and is situ- 
ated in a tenement district with wood- 
working factories, piano factories and 
steam laundries in the near vicinity. Just 
opposite is the City Gymnasium, and the 
two buildings will supplement one an- 
other in meeting the social and physical 
needs of the neighborhood. The lot is 
nearly square and is situated on a corner 
with an alley at the rear. The Union was 
erected on the three sides of the quad- 
rangle with a twofold purpose, to make 
the construction simple with short spans 
and to give sunlight and air in all the 
rooms. This plan makes it possible to 
carry out a cherished scheme of having 
a small inclosed garden plot, which in the 
hot days and close evenings of the sum- 
mer may be a quiet bit of greenery in the 
city wilderness. In the space at the rear 
there are not only the gardens, but also 
the five courts and a covered shed for 
bicycles. 

The various uses of the buildings en- 
able one to group them on the different 
floors. Thus the basement is for men, 
with reading and club rooms and a work- 
219 



shop. The first floor is chiefly for women, 
with coffee room and noonday rest. The 
second floor is occupied by the great hall 
and the kindergarten, and on the top floor 
are the boys' and girls' workshops for the 
industrial schools. 

An interesting part of the new under- 
taking is a model restaurant, the kitchens 
are furnished in modern fashion, with a 
huge oven that will cook for 300 people, 
and burns only two scuttlefuls of pea 
coal a day. At present the management 
is ready to feed 300 men, and also pro- 
vides a room for women. The latter is 
connected with a room for recreation 
and rest, and girls are encouraged to 
bring their lunches, which they may sup- 
plement with milk, tea, or other bever- 
ages. As so many girls are employed in 
the steam laundries and come from other 
parts of the city, this is likely to become 
a popular place. 

The Union was opened to philanthropic 
workers on January 29. Robert A. 
Woods, the head-worker at South End 
House, made all welcome, and the guests 
were conducted through rooms already 
fitted up for cooking, sloyd, modelling, 
and other forms of industrial training. 
An interesting class, carried on by the 
Arts and Crafts Society in connection 
with the Women's Residence of the South 
End House Association, has been trans- 
ferred to the new neighborhood house. 
This is an effort to start a new industry, 
and girls >are taught fine lacemaking, re- 
pairing, and laundering. They are paid 
$1 a day, and when the profits permit 
the wages will be increased. 

The night following the reception to 
the profession, a reception to the neigh- 
borhood was given, when the real own- 
ers of the building entered into their 
heritage. On .this occasion the Dramatic 
Club of the neighborhood presented 
David Grarrick. The great hall will be 
used constantly for lectures, concerts, and 
all that goes to the education and whole- 
some recreation of a people. A roof gar- 
den is among the future plans. 

The building is to be under the care 



220 



Charities 



of the residents of the South End House, 
but much of the responsibility and ex- 
pense will probably he assumed by the 
people of the neighborhood. This is the 
third building of the South End House 
Association. Since the establishment of 
a University Settlement in 1891, the 
members of the association have been con- 
spicuous for their constructive work. Their 
thorough knowledge of conditions in the 
South End and the North End of Bos- 
ton is shown by their publications — 
"The City Wilderness," and "Americans 
in Process." 



was to be found at a certain spot in the 
South End. To-day you find it spread 
all over that district, reaching every part, 
like a benevolent and sagacious octopus 
who should turn doctor and shine in his 
profession by means of his ability to feel 
many pulses at once. Only day before 
yesterday people assembled at the open- 
ing of a new building connected with the 
settlement. In Union Park? Oh, no, in 
Harrison Avenue, several blocks away, 
the center of a radically different popula- 
tion. You try to find Mr. Woods, the 
head of the house, after "office hours," 




South Bay Union. 



Instead of massing all their forces at 
a single point, the workers have estab- 
lished separate centers of influence so 
as to attack the needs of the neighbor- 
hood from different quarters and at veTy 
close range. It is intended that the resi- 
dence houses, with their home-like sim- 
plicity, shall always remain, focussing 
in themselves what is most vital in the 
settlement's influence; but the time ar- 
rived when the need of better facilities 
for the many organized neighborhood 
activities of the settlement became im- 
perative. 

Writing in the Transcript of this ex- 
pansion, John M. Bates, Jr., said: 

"Once upon a time South End House 



and where is he? Entertaining a neigh- 
borhood cluKat his pretty little home in 
Bond Street, in still another center. The 
women's residence, over in East Canton 
Street, touches another pulse still. The 
house itself, now in Union Park, was 
formerly in Rollins Street, and all that 
the residents learned there is still theirs 
for use in their ever-widening field of ac- 
complishment. Here, then, are five dif- 
ferent points of contact, to say nothing 
of the settlement's interest in Maren- 
holz House on Franklin Square (a resi- 
dence for kindergarten students from 
Miss Wheel ock's school), in the house in 
Bradford Street, where William I. Cole 
and Fr. Field have instituted social 



Notes of an Amateur Wayfarer 



221 



work for the colored colony, in the old 
Franklin School Building in Washing- 
ton Street, " in the various home libraries 
and stamp saving stations, and in the 
public bathhouses and the gymnasium of 
the district. 

"Now, all this is not simply expansion, 
though in eleven years the work has grown 
amazingly. Bather is it far-seeing, de- 
liberate policy — a policy of decentraliza- 
tion. The reasons for such a policy shine 
forth in its results — a wider range of 
Observation, a broader scope of sym- 
pathies, closer touch with the people, 
more complete specialization. Instead of 
one big institution trying to do a lot of 
different things in the same place — and 
practically at the same time — different 
things, that is, to meet the needs of the 
different types of its constituency — in- 
stead of this you find a lot of small in- 
stitutions, each admirably suited to its 
own purpose, and within easy reach of its 
own smaller constituency. So, in short, 
the South End House Settlement is reach- 



ing out all around — to Back Bay and 
South Bay (whose waters used to meet 
sometimes at floodtide, just where the 
South Bay Union now stands), to Har- 
vard and to the South End Industrial 
Club, to the lodging-houses and the tene- 
ments. And the result of its decentraliza- 
tion policy — like that of Oxford House in 
Bethnal Green — is endless flexibility. If 
any branch of the work ceases to be ef- 
fective, or is duplicated by outsiders, it 
can be dropped. None so glad as the 
South End House residents would be to 
see factory owners provide luncheon 
places or manual training or itihe noon- 
day rest for their employees — as many 
employers in this country and abroad 
have already done. The settlers would 
then turn at once to new efforts, which 
under this policy can be taken up at any 
time. There are no hard and fast lines 
of theory and accomplishment. The 
South End House movement is less a 
crystallized institution than a live, active, 
human force, always ready to adapt itself 
to new conditions." 



NOTES OF AN AMATEUR WAYFARER. 1 



BENJAMIN C. MARSH. 



Philadelphia has a Wayfarers' Lodge 
with a reputation, after its kind, much like 
Delmonico's. Why is it then that home- 
less men seem to avoid it, and what sort 
of man is it who has to be classed a tramp 
and homeless? To help answer this 
question I tried being one of them on 
several occasions, seeing things as best I 
might from their standpoint, and study- 
ing them at close range. Religious 
lodging-houses, common lodging-houses, 
missions, and' police stations, were all 
visited and appreciated so far as possi- 
ble from the standpoint of their regular 
patrons. 

These places are of about the same 
grade as those in most large cities. Only 
three shelters in Philadelphia, besides 
the two lodges of the Society for Organ- 
izing Charity, provide a work test. Two 
of these require a fair measure of cleanli- 



ness and decency besides. The second 
and imuch larger class keep men 'week 
after week for a charge of ten or fifteen 
cents a night. Several of the religious 
institutions include a cup of coffee, bread 
and rolls for the amount of the lodging. 
In none is bathing compulsory. In one 
institution where I was informed that 
every man had to take a bath, the only 
tub was filled with cobwebs and broken 
glass. A third class combine a regular 
lodging-house business with a ticket 
business — strips of tickets being sold to 
the charitable, usually ten for $1, 
which they can give to applicants. Men 
claiming to be without money and apply- 
ing to these shelters are actually told 
where to go and beg for tickets, so that 
ticket holders are naturally impressed 
with the number of homeless and hungry 
wanderers in the city. The tickets are 



1 It has been the plan of the Philadelphia Society for Organizing Charity to get acquainted with the men who 
come to its wayfarers' lodges, and to use the same methods of assistance with each individual which have proved 
successful with families. At the instigation of Miss Marv R. Richmond, the secretary, an arrangement was made 
with the University of Pennsylvania creating a special fellowship for the study of homeless men. One of the first 
undertakings was to become familiar with the inside workings of the missions and lodging-houses that shelter 
wayfarers of this sort; what was done is described in these notes. Mr. Marsh is now studying the life histories of 
•something like 150 men to find reasons why they are out of work and homeless. 



222 



Charities 



extensively sold to clergymen. A fourth 
class of institution is supported entirely 
by the ticket system. 

I spent an October night at a so-called 
workingmen's industrial home. Apply- 
ing at the door about 9.30 p. m., in my 
wayfarer's outfit, I asked whether I could 
sleep on the floor free, as I had no' money 
and offered to work for my lodging in 
the morning. The man in charge said 
no, but I might beg five cents easily. I 



cult to find any place to stretch out. All 
of them were sleeping in their clothes 
and the stench in the rooms, which had no 
ventilation, was almost unendurable. A 
few of the men kept up a conversation 
till two o'clock the next morning. Some 
of the others were sleeping the sleep of 
the just — tired out. Two of them had 
recently come out of the House of Cor- 
rection, and told of its management. 
Most of them were out of work, many by 




Wayfarers' Lodge of the Philadelphia Society for Organizing Charity, 



made an effort to beg the money, 
but was in a poor district and un- 
successful. Eeturning about ten o'clock, 
I offered them a nickel and was 
sent up stairs to pick out a place. 
Men were sleeping on the landings be- 
tween the floors. Two rooms on the 
second floor about ten feet high, one 
eighteen by eighteen and the other 
eighteen by twenty, were occupied by more 
than thirty men, "five-cent floppers," as 
they are called. They were lying so closely 
together on the bare floor that it was diffi- 



preference. "It's a disgrace," said one, 
"to work in Philadelphia, when you can 
get along so easily without doing a 
stroke." 

There were no industries in this in- 
dustrial home. 

Another night in October was spent at 
a salvation army hotel. Before going 
there I tried begging money. The first 
individual gave me ten cents so readily 
that I returned it. Then I collected a 
nickel from each of three men in one 
block. At the barracks, which I reached 



Notes of an Amateur Wayfarer 



223 



about half-past eleven o'clock, I told 
the officer in charge that I was "broke/' 
but his supply of sympathy had 
run out. A workman offered to pay my 
lodging, a generosity which I accepted 
and agreed to repay later. This he re- 
fused to let me do. The bed to which I 
was assigned was an iron double decker. 
The linen and blankets were extremely 
dirty, the linen here being changed once 
a week. Several of the men around me 
were regular workmen, one earning $1.50, 
and another $1.75 per day driving, but 
they spent their money freely and never 
saved anything. One of the attendants 
was drunk and had a free fight with a 
lodger. The air was very bad. A man in 
my neighborhood remarked that it had 
been several weeks since he had had what 
might be called a bath. The men all 
said I could get work in Baldwin's or at 
Cramps', but all advised me to get back 
to the farm in Delaware, which I had 
said I had left. I told them I was out 
of money, and several offered to "set up" 
breakfast for me and give me a little 
money to get started home. 

A Sunday night was spent at one of the 
most notorious resorts for beggars in the 
city. On entering the place I informed 
the clerk that I was "broke," and asked 
him whether he could not direct me to 
some one to give me money. He pointed 
to a man sitting in the room who 
could furnish me with a list of givers. 
Frank, as they called him, was partially 
drunk and reticent at first, but soon re- 
ferred me to a rector near by who would 
give me tickets to the Samaritan Shelter 
and probably fifty cents besides if I 
would tell ihim I belonged to a certain 
church on Madison Avenue, New York, 
as he had given Frank the same before. 
The rector was absent, so I returned to 
my mentor. In the course of the evening 
he grew communicative and told me that 
most ministers in Philadelphia are "dead 
easy blokes," and if a man could "put up 
any kind of a front" and "talk a de- 
cently straight gait" he could get money. 
He cited several of his successful raids on 
the credulity and sympathy of prominent 
clergymen and business men, and prom- 
ised to give me a more complete list the 
next morning. It is only fair to state 
that I had asked several people for money 



on a wealthy residence street early in the 
evening, and had been refused because 
they said I looked strong enough to be 
able to work. One of his chums told me 
that Frank lived in Philadelphia on what 
he "grafted," and is drunk a good part of 
the time. He is a good type of the in- 
telligent beggar, short of statue and light 
of weight, with a general air of refine- 
ment and intelligence so that he easily 
passes as a former professor in the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. He has traveled 
extensively and knows a good many cities 
in New England where I also had been 
within a few months, and I found that he 
had imposed on several of my acquaint- 
ances. My bed cost fifteen cents. About 
4 a. m. the air grew so foul that 1 went 
out into the streets. The saloons were 
open and men were beginning to gather. 
My friend gave me a further list when he 
got up and more details of the grafter's 
modus operandi in Philadelphia. By an 
ironical propriety, lodging-houses in 
Philadelphia are under the supervision 
of the inspector of nuisances. There are 
106 cheap ones in the city, accommodat- 
ing 4,643 lodgers. 

A night in January was spent visiting 
lodging-houses and police stations. The 
superintendent at a mission shelter told 
me, about nine o'clock, that they were 
full, but that if I could come the next 
evening by half-past six o'clock I could 
get a free bed. He also referred me to 
streets where I could beg tickets. At a 
second mission religious services were 
just starting. A young theologue was 
"practicing." There were perhaps thirty 
men in the room. Two or three regulars 
gave their testimony and the superintend- 
ent of the mission delivered a tirade on 
selfish wealth. At the close, those of the 
men who had beds there went up to the 
dormitory and I asked for a bed and a 
bite. I fancy that the warmth with 
which I sang the hymns must have been 
noticed, for not having any vacant beds 
the young man gave me ten cents to get a 
night's lodging. I returned it, knowing 
the financial straits of most students. 
Next I visited several of the police sta- 
tions. At the fifth I went into a cell 
and talked with some of the prisoners in 
others, but was kept so busy removing the 
vermin which were collecting on my over- 



224 



Charities 



coat that I could not sleep and so left 
at 2 a. M. The saloons were open and 
some well filled with customers. Return- 
ing to the fourth station that I had 
visited, I was shown to a cell by the ac- 
commodating turnkey, but found it so 
full that I should have to lie on the floor. 
The night was mild, and there were only 
a few tramps in most of the station- 
houses that I visited. The officers all 
told me that they were forbidden to allow 
any one to lodge there, yet in only one 
instance had I any difficulty in securing 
accommodations, such as they were. 

It occurred to me that it might be well 
to end the night, by way of contrast, at 
Wa}d:arers' Lodge on Lombard Street. 
Here I found 110 empty beds. In fact, 
at no time since my investigation began 
had the lodge been crowded. I had a 
bath, was given a clean night shirt and 
took at random a bed as comfortable as 
many had been in New England and New 
York hotels, for which I have paid $1. 
These, with supper and breakfast, are 
exchanged for from three to four hours' 
work. An effort is made to place men 
in work and to find for them the help 
most needed. 

One Saturday night I adopted the sug- 
gestion of my friend Frank, put my arm 
in a sling, and started begging from door 
to door on some of the streets he men- 
tioned. A note signed by my "mother" 
stated that she was anxious to have me 
get home as soon as I could get out of 
the hospital. With explanatory state- 
ments at each door, according to the per- 
son who answered the ring, I succeeded 
in securing $1.15 in about an hour. An- 
other day I tried the "dodge" on some 
clergymen, but they would give me no 
money. Four tickets were secured in a 
short time, worth twenty cents each, en- 
titling the bearer to supper, lodging, and 
breakfast at the mission described. These 
tickets are worth ten or fifteen cents for 
drinks at the saloons in the vicinity. A 
man can't very well sleep in more than 
one bed a night, and tramps seldom take 
thought for the morrow. 

My visit to the Sunday breakfast as- 
sociation was the occasion of meeting 
many of my friends of the lodging-houses 
and police stations. About 800 men 
were in attendance; the leader said we 



had come for spiritual food. I asked 
several of the men around me whether 
we would have crossed the street if it 
were not for the breakfast, and they all 
agreed that we would not. The speaker 
for the day knew something of his audi- 
ence, however, for he asked how many of 
the men had voted at the gubernatorial 
election, held during the week. Up went 
some fifty hands. "How many of you 
voted two or three times?" Taken by 
surprise, about twenty men raised their 
hands again. Breakfast consisted of two 
large rolls, a slice of corned beef, and all 
the coffee wanted. 

Before the investigation was completed 
I had found out some things about the 
problems of homeless men and tramps. 
The citizens of Philadelphia are making 
it altogether too easy for them to get 
along by this system of free lodgings, in- 
discriminate giving, and misdirected re- 
ligious activities. On the other hand, I 
had discovered why there were so few in- 
mates of the Wayfarers' Lodge, and why 
many of the men for whom the lodge 
finds work show little or no inclination to 
take it. 

Two conclusions were forced upon me 
by these experiences, conclusions that are 
simply in accord with the views of other 
charity workers: 

First — Any beggar can pass a comfort- 
able winter in Philadelphia without do- 
ing a stroke of work, just living by his 
wits and profiting by the folly of the 
public. 

Second — To prevent this a few things 
should be done: 

(a) The public should be enlightened 
as to the adequate provision already made 
for any man willing to work for it, 
should be encouraged to refer all appli- 
cants to the proper places for investiga- 
tion, care, and treatment, should stand 
ready to help in this treatment with both 
money and service, but at the same time 
should be persuaded not to give money to 
any stranger on the street or at the door. 

(b) Institutions such as I have visited 
and described should be induced by their 
supporters to provide some kind of work 
test, to cease selling tickets to be given 
away, and to make the bath compulsory. 

(c) Cheap lodging-houses should be 
carefully supervised. 



THE DUTIES OF THE INDIVIDUAL AND THE GOVERNMENT 
IN THE COMBAT OF TUBERCULOSIS. 1 

S. A. KNOPF, M. D., NEW YORK. 



By way of preface, I desire to state 
that I shall speak not only of the duty 
of the government but particularly of the 
duties of individuals, represented by the 
consumptives themselves, those living 
with them, the general public, the teach- 
ers, thle clergy, the gentlemen of the 
press, and the philanthropists. I might 
be asked why I do not say anything of 
the duties of the physician. Let me as- 
sure you that the medical profession is 
fully aware of its great duties and re- 
sponsibilities in this struggle against 
tuberculosis. Many of you have doubt- 
lessly heard of the numerous interesting 
discussions in the various medical assem- 
blies. The duties of the physician in this 
matter are, of course, of a specific char- 
acter, and his curative and preventive 
measures in dealing with the tuberculosis 
problem have been amply discussed be- 
fore medical audiences. 

Whenever there is an enemy to fight 
we must know his strong and his weak 
points, and the more intimately we are 
acquainted with his strength and his 
weakness, the more likely we are to be- 
come victorious over him. Let us there- 
fore consider for a moment the charac- 
ter and the peculiarities of the disease 
we are desirous to combat. 

Pulmonary tuberculosis, or consump- 
tion, is a chronic, infectious and com- 
municable disease, caused by the presence 
of the tubercle bacillus, or germ of con- 
sumption, in the lungs. The disease is 
locally characterized by countless tuber- 
cles, that is to say, small rounded bodies, 
visible to the naked eye. The bacilli can 
he found by the million in the affected 
organ. It is this little parasite, fungus, 
or mushroom, belonging to the lowest 
scale of vegetable life, which must be 
considered as the specific cause of all tu- 
berculous diseases. This parasite not only 
gradually destroys the lung substance 



through ulcerative processes, but at the 
same time gives off certain poisonous 
substances called toxins which give rise 
to various, and often serious, symptoms. 

The important symptoms of pulmon- 
ary tuberculosis are cough, expectoration 
(spitting phlegm), fever (increased tem- 
perature of the body, especially in the 
evening hours), difficulty in breathing, 
pains in the chest, night-sweats, loss of 
appetite, hemorrhages (spitting of 
blood), and emaciation (loss of flesh). 
In the matter expectorated it is often 
possible to find the tubercle bacillus with 
the aid of the microscope and certain col- 
oring matters. It appears in the form of 
small, slender rods. 

How may this germ of consumption 
enter the human system? 

There are really three methods where- 
by this germ may enter; namely, by in- 
halation, that is, being breathed into 
the lungs ; by ingestion, that is, being eat- 
en with tuberculous food; and by inoc- 
ulation, that is, the penetration of tu- 
berculous substance through a wound in 
the skin. 

Let us treat first the most frequent 
method of the propagation of tubercu- 
losis, namely, that arising from the in- 
discriminate deposit of the tuberculous 
sputum. A consumptive individual, even 
at a period when he is not confined to 
his bed, may expectorate enormous quan- 
tities of bacilli. Now, if his expectora- 
tion^ or spittle, is carelessly deposited 
here and there so that it has an oppor- 
tunity to dry and become pulverized, the 
least draught or motion of the air 
may cause it to mingle with the 
dust, and the individual inhaling 
this dust-laden atmosphere is cer- 
tainly exposed to the danger of be- 
coming tuberculous if the system of- 
fers a favorable soil for the growth of 
the bacilli. Bv "favorable soil for the 



1 Address delivered under the auspices of the Committee on Tuberculosis of the Charity Organization Society 
of the Cky of New York, in the Assembly Hall of the United Charity Building. New York, on February 9, 1903. 



226 



Charities 



growth of bacilli' 7 must be understood 
any condition in which the body is tem- 
porarily or permanently enfeebled. Such 
a condition may be inherited from par- 
ents, or acquired through alcoholism, or 
drunkenness, or other intemperate hab- 
its, through privation, or disease. 

Besides the danger arising from care- 
lessly deposited sputum, or spittle, the 
inhalation or ingestion of the small par- 
ticles of saliva which may be expelled by 
the consumptive during his so-called dry 
cough, when speaking quickly or loudly, 
or when sneezing, must also be considered 
as dangerous for those who come in close 
contact with the invalid. These almost 
invisible drops of saliva may contain tu- 
bercle bacilli. Recent experiments in this 
direction have shown the possibility of 
infection by this means. 

The next most frequent method of 
the propogation of tuberculosis is 
through the ingestion of the bacilli, that 
is to say, when the germ of consumption 
is taken with the food. 

The third and much less frequent way 
of the cause of tuberculosis is the inocula- 
tion, or penetration of the tuberculous 
substance through the skin. 

What should we do to stop the first 
and most frequent source of the dissem- 
ination of the bacillus? 

A patient suffering from pulmonary 
consumption should know that no matter 
in what stage of the disease he may be, 
his expectoration, or spittle, may spread 
the germ of the disease if the matter ex- 
pectorated is not destroyed before it has 
a chance to dry and become pulverized. 
The patient should, therefore, always 
spit in some receptacle intended for that 
purpose. It is best to have this vessel 
made of metal so as not to break. It 
should be half filled with water or some 
disinfecting fluid, the main thing being 
to make it impossible for the expectora- 
tion to dry. 

In factories, stores, railroad cars, wait- 
ing rooms, court rooms, restaurants, sa- 
loons, meeting places, theaters, menager- 
ies — in short, wherever many people con- 
gregate — there should be a .sufficient num- 
ber of cuspidors well kept and regularly 
cleaned. They should be made of un- 
breakable material and have wide open- 
ings. If such measures are carried out, 



there will be no excuse for any one to 
expectorate on the floor and thus endan- 
ger the lives of his fellowmen. 

When outdoors, the patient should use 
a pocket flask of metal, strong glass or 
pasteboard. There are numerous kinds 
of these in the market. 

A handkerchief should never be used 
as a receptacle for sputum. Patients who 
are too sick to make use of light porce- 
lain or aluminum cups, should have a 
number of moist rags within easy reach. 
Care should be taken that the rags always 
remain moist, and that the used ones are 
burned before they have a chance to dry. 
The paper spit-cups with their contents 
should, of course, also be destroyed by 
fire. 

There will always be some consump- 
tives who cannot be persuaded to use the 
pocket flask, for the simple reason that 
they do not wish to draw attention to 
their malady. The only thing for these 
people to do is to use squares of soft 
muslin, cheese-cloth, cheap handkerchiefs 
or Japanese paper handkerchiefs specially 
manufactured for that purpose, which 
can be burned after use. They should al- 
so place in their pockets a removable lin- 
ing of rubber or other impermeable sub- 
stance which can be thoroughly cleaned. 
This additional pocket could be fastened 
to the inside of the ordinary pocket by 
clamps, and would thus be of no incon- 
venience to the patient. A pouch of vul- 
canized rubber or an oriental tobacco- 
pouch may be used in place of the extra 
pocket of impermeable material. 

The danger of dissemination of the 
bacilli through the so-called dry cough 
is relatively small; we should, however, 
nevertheless, insist that the patient hold 
a handkerchief before his mouth or nose 
when he coughs or sneezes. The con- 
sumptive should be advised to carry two 
handkerchiefs with him, one to hold be- 
fore his mouth and to wipe it with after 
having expectorated ; the other to use 
only to wipe his nose. Bv being careful 
with the use of his handkerchiefs, the 
danger of infecting his nose and bron- 
chial tubes will be materially lessened. 

All soiled linens (sheets, pillow cases, 
underwear, napkins, handkerchiefs, etc.) 
used by the consumptive should not be 
handled more than neoessarv, but should 



The Combat of Tuberculosis 



227 



be placed in water as soon as possible after 
removal from the bed or body. It is bet- 
ter to wash these articles separately, and 
only after having been thoroughly boiled 
should they be put with the common laun- 
dry. Whenever it is not possible to carry 
out these precautionary measures in their 
entirety, one should strive to follow them 
as far as it is in one's power. 

Against the danger from infection 
through tuberculous food we will say that 
whenever one is not reasonably certain 
that the meat he eats has been carefully 
inspected and declared free from dis- 
ease germs, it should be very thoroughly 
cooked. By this means one is certain to 
kill all the dangerous micro-organisms. 
Against the sale of tuberculous milk, 
there are very excellent laws in some states 
of the union which are rigorously en- 
forced. In some, the laws are less good, 
and in some there are no laws at the pres- 
ent time. In justice to farmers and dairy- 
men it must, however, be said that there 
are many who do their very best to pro- 
tect themselves and their fellowmen from 
the danger of tuberculosis. They have 
their cows tested regularly, destroy the' 
animals which are found to be tubercu- 
lous, and keep their stables and utensils 
for milk as clean as possible. Unless one 
can be reasonably sure that the cows from 
which the milk is derived are healthy and 
not tuberculous, the milk should be boiled 
or sterilized before use, especially when 
it is intended as food for children. Milk 
obtained from stores and from milk ped- 
dlers should invariably be submitted to 
boiling or sterilization. When milk is 
kept slowly boiling for five minutes, all 
the bacilli are killed, and the same result 
is obtained by the sterilizing process ; that 
is to say, to keep the milk heated for at 
least half an hour at a temperature of 
about 70 degrees centigrade or 160 de- 
grees Fahrenheit. There are now in the 
market a number of cheap and practical 
apparatuses for sterilizing milk which 
can be obtained at almost any drug store. 

Raw fruit bought from the push-cart 
man, or, for that matter, derived from 
any other source, should be washed, 
peeled or cooked before being eaten. 

There is another possibility whereby 
the germs of consumption may enter our 
stomach or intestines, namely, through 



kissing the consumptive, or using uten- 
sils which have been soiled by the saliva 
of the patient. Therefore, the consump- 
tive should never kiss, no matter whom, 
on the mouth, and children should be 
taught not to allow any one to kiss them 
except on the cheek or not at all. Tuber- 
culous patients should have their own 
drinking glasses, spoons, forks, etc. ; or at 
least, all table utensils which have served 
the tuberculous patient should be steril- 
ized in boiling water after use. 

It is, of course, also possible that the 
consumptive may contract intestinal tu- 
berculosis when he, out of false modesty, 
swallows his expectoration. He should 
also remember never to touch food before 
having washed his hands very thorough- 
ly. Even with the greatest care it is 
possible that he may have soiled his hands 
with tuberculous expectoration. 

Inoculation, or the penetration of tu- 
berculous substance through the skin, 
happens perhaps most frequently through 
injuries received while cleaning nickel or 
chipped glass or porcelain cuspidors 
which have been used by consumptives. 
It is also possible for the bacilli to enter 
the circulation if the person cleaning the 
spittoons happens to have a wound or open 
sore on his hands. Persons intrusted with 
the care of the spittoons in a private 
home or an institution for consumptives 
should wear rubber gloves while cleaning 
these vessels. At times the patient may 
inoculate himself by placing an accident- 
ally injured finger in his mouth, or by 
carelessly soiling an open wound with his 
expectoration. Physicians, students of 
medicine or veterinary science, butchers, 
etc., are also exposed to the danger of 
wounding themselves with instruments 
which may have come in contact with 
tuberculous matter. Extreme care is the 
only remedy for all persons thus exposed. 
If one has been unfortunate enough to re- 
ceive injury and tuberculous inoculation 
is feared, the best thing to do is to let 
the wound bleed freely, wash it thorough- 
ly with water that has been boiled, with 
a five per cent solution of carbolic acid, 
or with pure alcohol ; dress the wound 
with a clean rag dipped in any of these 
liquids, and seek as soon as possible the 
advice of a physician. 

I have thus far only spoken of tu- 



'228 



Charities 



berculosis which manifests itself in the 
pulmonary form, that is to say, consump- 
tion of the lungs, of intestinal tubercu- 
losis, that is to say, consumption of the 
bowels, and tuberculosis of the skin, or 
lupus. But you must know that every 
organ in the body, such as the throat, the 
bones, and the covering of the brain and 
spinal column, are also not infrequently 
invaded by the tubercle bacillus. In the 
latter form the disease is technically 
called tuberculosis meningitis. 

After all that you have heard so far 
of the contagiousness, or rather the com- 
municability of tuberculosis, and con- 
sumption in particular, I do not wish you 
to think that a breath in the atmosphere 
accidentally laden with bacilli would cer- 
tainly render a healthy individual con- 
sumptive, or that by a swallow of tuber- 
culous milk, or a little injury from a 
broken cuspidor, one must necessarily be- 
come tuberculous. The secretions of our 
nasal cavities, doubtlessly also the blood, 
and the secretions of the stomach of the 
healthy individual, have bactericidal 
properties; that is to say, they kill the 
dangerous germs before they have a 
chance to do harm. Therefore, the healthy 
man and woman should not have an ex- 
aggerated fear of tuberculosis, but they 
should, nevertheless, not recklessly ex- 
pose themselves to the danger of infec- 
tion. 

But who are the individuals who must 
be particularly careful so as not to be at- 
tacked by the almost ever present tubercle 
bacillus ? 

There are four classes: First, those 
who have a hereditary predisposition to 
consumption ; secondly, those who have 
weakened their system and thus predis- 
posed themselves to consumption by the 
intemperate use of alcoholic beverages, 
by a dissipated life, by excess of all 
kinds, etc. ; thirdly, those whose consti- 
tution has been weakened through dis- 
ease — for example, pneumonia, typhoid 
fever, smallpox, measles, whooping-cough, 
syphilis, influenza, etc. ; fourthly, those 
whose occupations, trades or professions, 
such as printing-, hat-making, tailoring, 
weaving, and all occupations where the 
worker is much exposed to the inhalation 
of various kinds of dust, have rendered 
them particularly liable to consumption. 



Before I proceed to give you a few 
of the essential points how to overcome 
such a predisposition to consumption, let 
me answer the question: "What about 
those who have a so-called hereditary con- 
sumption?" Permit me to say that the 
popular notion concerning hereditary 
consumption is in my humble opinion ab- 
solutely erroneous. Consumption has per- 
haps never been inherited either from the 
father or the mother, but the child has 
usually been infected by its well-meaning 
but ignorant consumptive parents after 
birth. The mother has kissed the child, 
taken it into her bed, allowed it to use 
the same spoons and utensils which she 
has used herself, and thus unconsciously 
has conveyed the disease to her infant. 
Through kissing and caressing a con- 
sumptive father, the child may also be 
infected ; or again, either the one or the 
other parent may have been careless with 
their expectoration, may have spat on 
the floor where the child plays. It must 
be obvious to any thinking individual 
that if such uncleanly habits of the fa- 
ther or mother prevail the healthy born 
child is not liable to remain healthy long. 

I have said that consumption is not 
hereditary, and children born of con- 
sumptive parents need not necessarily 
contract the disease. I, myself, have seen 
children of a consumptive parent grow 
up to be strong men and women. But 
their parents were not only careful, clean 
and conscientious; they were also aware 
that, while they did not transmit con- 
sumption to their children, they have 
transmitted to them a tendency, or pre- 
disposition, to this disease. This heredi- 
tary • predisposition is, however, a condi- 
tion which can be overcome by judicious 
training, proper food, plenty of outdoor 
exercises, and the avoidance of all ex- 
cesses. Every predisposed individual 
should dress sensibly and according to the 
season. Never should they wear gar- 
ments which restrict circulation or hin- 
der the free physiological function of the 
chest or abdomen. Tightly laced corsets, 
tight neckwear, tight shoes, are all per- 
nicious and particularly dangerous to the 
individual predisposed to tuberculosis. 

A predisposition, whether inherited or 
acquired, may be explained as a peculiar 
weakened state of the svstem which offers 



The Combat of Tuberculosis 



229 



a favorable soil for the growth and mul- 
tiplication, of the germs of consumption. 
1 have already said what should be the 
duty of the parents if they are themselves 
consumptive and fear to have transmitted 
to their offsprings a predisposition to the 
disease. Concerning alcoholism and other 
intemperate habits, which are so often 
the forerunners of consumption, I desire 
to speak plainly. I do not wish to appear 
to you as a temperance lecturer, con- 
demning all and everything which does 
not subscribe to the doctrines of the tem- 
perance party. I consider alcohol a med- 
icine, at times indispensable in the treat- 
ment of certain diseases; but liquor as a 
beverage is never useful and nearly always 
harmful. Alcoholism must be considered 
the greatest enemy of the welfare of a 
nation, the most frequent destroyer of 
family happiness, the cause of the ruin 
of mind, body and soul; and certainly the 
most active co-operator of the deadly tu- 
bercle bacillus. 

To combat alcoholism (drunkenness or 
intemperance), education above all is re- 
quired. Extreme prosecution and fan- 
atical laws will do little good. From early 
childhood the dangers of intemperance 
and its fearful consequences should be 
taught. In schools and at home the drunk- 
ard should be pictured as the most un- 
happy of all mortals. While the very 
moderate use of feeble alcoholic drinks, 
such as light beers, may be considered as 
harmless to adults when taken with .their 
meals, alcohol should never be given to 
children, even in the smallest quantities. 
In families in which there is a fear of 
hereditary transmission of the desire for 
strong drink, even the mildest alcoholic 
drinks should be absolutely avoided. It 
would also be best if all people so pre- 
disposed, or who may have acquired only 
the occasional desire for drink, would 
never smoke, for experience has taught 
that attacks of dipsomnia (periodical 
sprees) are often caused by an excessive 
use of tobacco. The young man starting 
out in life should take with him the 
moral training which will enable him to 
be a gentleman, and be considered a polite 
gentleman, though he absolutely refuses 
ever to enter a liquor saloon in order to 
treat or be treated to drink. It is this 
treating habit — alas ! so prevalent in our 



American society — which has ruined 
many a young man and made him a 
moral and physical wreck. The creation 
of tea and coffee houses where warm, non- 
alcoholic drinks, including bouillon, are 
sold in winter and cool ones in summer, 
are to be encouraged. It would be of 
additional advantage if some of these 
houses could also offer healthful amuse- 
ments for old and young. Temperance 
societies, which through tactful and in- 
telligent propaganda help to combat the 
fearful evil of alcoholism, should receive 
encouragement from everybody. 

There is another point in regard to 
alcohol and tuberculosis I wish to empha- 
size, and that is the idea that alcohol is 
a remedy or even a specific remedy for 
consumption. There has never been a 
greater mistake made. Alcohol has never 
cured and never will cure tuberculosis. 
It will either prevent or retard recovery. 
It is like a two-edged weapon; on one 
side it poisons the system, and on the 
other side it ruins the stomach and thus 
prevents this organ from properly digest- 
ing the necessary food. Truly pathetic 
are the results of this erroneous doctrine 
in the families of the poor, where in- 
stead of procuring good nourishment for 
the invalid, liquor has been brought in 
far too large quantities, so that often 
there was not enough money left for food 
for the sufferer nor for the other mem- 
bers of the family. 

The individual enfeebled by disease, 
such as typhoid fever, grip, etc., should 
lead a particularly careful life and avoid 
crowded meeting places and all localities 
where the air is vitiated and where he 
is in danger of coming in contact with 
careless or ignorant individuals who ex- 
pectorate everywhere. Men who have a 
trade, such as printers, tailors, bookkeep- 
ers or other workers whose occupations are 
more or less predisposing to tuberculosis, 
can render their work relatively health- 
ful by leading a sober life and, when not 
at work, spending as much time as possi- 
ble in the open air, by breathing deeply 
and keeping the body in a thoroughly 
good condition through regular bathing 
and judicious exercise. 

I have taken for the title of my ad- 
dress to-ni^ht "The Duties of the Indi- 
vidual and the Government in the Com- 



Charities 



bat of Tuberculosis;" and I believe I 
have said all I could in the brief space of 
time allotted to me of the duties of the 
consumptive, of those living with him, of 
those who are in favor of becoming con- 
sumptive, and of the parents who may 
have transmitted to their children a pre- 
disposition to the disease. The duty of 
the individual who is not included in 
these four classes is to make himself ac- 
quainted with the facts stated. Every- 
one, whether he is consumptive, or lives 
with consumptives, or has nothing what- 
soever ^to do with consumptives, should 
know the few principal sources for the 
propagation of the disease and the means 
to combat them. It should be known to 
everyone that consumption is an infec- 
tious, communicable, preventable, and 
curable disease, and that in the earl 
stages the cure is often accomplished as 
many as seventy-five to eighty-five times 
out of a hundred. What is most interest- 
ing to know is that this cure can not onl 
be accomplished in California, or Colora- 
do, but also in our own home climate; 
not, however, by quacks and patent med- 
icines, but by the scientific and judicious 
use of fresh air, sunshine, water, abun- 
dant and good food (milk, eggs, meat, 
vegetables, fruit) , and the help of certain 
medicinal substances when the just-men- 
tioned hygienic and dietic means do not 
suffice in themselves to combat the dis- 
ease. 

The thorough and constant supervision 
of the pulmonary invalid, the immediate 
intervention when new symptoms mani- 
fest themselves or old ones become ag- 
gravated or do not disappear rapidly 
enough, the prescribing of proper food 
and drink, can only be done by the thor- 
oughly trained plrysician, either in the 
home of the patient or a properly con- 
ducted sanatorium. 

Before proceeding to point out to some 
individuals their special duties in the 
combat of tuberculosis, I would like to 
say a word which applies to all. On every- 
one with the knowledge of the prevention 
of consumption, knowledge which he 
may have possessed already or which I 
may have been fortunate enough to con- 
vey to him, I think it my duty to impress 
the fact that he can do something toward 
the combat of the disease. 



If you are in the presence of a con- 
sumptive who is not yet under medical 
care, teach him what you know of the 
prevention of the disease and advise him 
to seek the counsel of a competent phy- 
sician. If he is too poor to pay for a 
consultation, and too proud to ask it for 
nothing, tell him to apply to the health 
department, which will send him one of 
its physicians without cost. No tuber- 
culous invalid, no matter in what stage 
of the disease, whether living in a pal- 
ace or in the poorest tenement house, 
should be without a medical adviser. If 
you meet a consumptive who is ignorant 
of the precautions he should take, do not 
shun him like a leper, but treat him with 
kindness, and convince him that what- 
ever he does to prevent the spread of the 
disease among others will also improve 
his own condition and increase the 
chances of his recovery. Let me tell you 
that a clean, conscientious consumptive 
is as safe a person to associate with as 
anybody. If in your daily life you can 
influence others to make themselves fa- 
miliar with the necessary knowledge of 
the prevention of tuberculosis, do so ! If 
through your influence, your words and 
example, you can combat this fearful 
curse of our nation — alcoholism — I be- 
seech you, do your duty. 

Some individuals have, by virtue of 
their calling, a special duty to perform 
in the combat of tuberculosis. Of these 
I mention first the teachers of the public 
schools, the clergymen, the editors of the 
public press, employers and philanthrop- 
ists. 

The teachers of our public schools 
should not only be familiar with the or- 
dinary methods of preventing the spread 
of the disease, preach and practise in 
their classrooms ample ventilation; but 
they should also be familiar with the 
general appearance of the tuberculous 
child, so that they may call the attention 
of the school physician or the parents to 
the condition of the pupil. It should be 
known that bone and joint tuberculosis 
is most frequently manifested in child- 
hood. The early symptoms of tubercu- 
losis of the bones and joints show them- 
selves in the lameness and easy tiring 
of the arms or legs affected. If the spinal 
column is affected, the symptoms will 



The Combat of Tuberculosis 



23 



depend upon the location of the vertebrae 
which is attacked by the disease. Scrofu- 
losis, which is only a milder form of tu- 
berculosis, and which is even more fre- 
quent than bone tuberculosis in children, 
is easily recognized. The scrofulous child 
is usually pale with flabby skin and mus- 
cles. The glands around the neck are 
swollen, and skin disease, sore eyes, and 
running ears are frequent symptoms. The 
little patient usually manifests a phleg- 
matic condition, but we may also find 
some that are nervous and irritable. The 
latter often have a peculiarly white, deli- 
cate skin, which makes the veins visible. 
Fever may be observed in some children. 
In view of the happily very curable na- 
ture of scrofulous affections, the import- 
ance of the early recognition and of the 
timely and judicious treatment, is, of 
course, self-evident. This scrofulous con- 
dition may be either inherited or ac- 
quired. The hereditary type comes from 
parents who are scrofulous, tuberculous, 
or syphilitic. It has also been proved that 
when one or both of the parents were al- 
coholics, that is to say, addicted to the 
chronic use of intoxicants, their off- 
springs have become scrofulous. 

All this shows how dangerous it is 
for weakly and sickly persons, or those 
afflicted with any of the above-mentioned 
diseases, to marry and have children be- 
fore being completely restored to health. 
We wish to state again that all these dis- 
eases can be cured by timely medical 
treatment. To be cured from alcoholism, 
the physican's help is not always neces- 
sary. In most cases it requires only the 
earnest and honest endeavor to abstain. 

The principals of schools should make 
it their duty to incorporate in the curri- 
culum of all classes gymnastics and out- 
door exercises and play. The mental de- 
velopment of our children, valuable as it 
is, should never be pushed to the detri- 
ment of their physical development and 
well being. 

The clergymen, too, should inculcate 
these ideas into the minds of the people 
under their charge, and they, too, should 
feel pride in having their churches hy- 
gienicallv constructed and well ventila- 
ted. Fixed carpets should not be used 
in places of worship where so many peo- 
ple congregate. Catholic priests in charge 



of large congregations may do well to 
follow the example of the great Roman 
divine, the Bishop of Fano in Italy. In 
a circular recently issued by him, he asks 
the priests of his diocese to comply with 
the following rules: 

(1) In every church, the floor must be regu- 
larly cleaned with sawdust, saturated with a 
strong sublimate solution. This thorough clean- 
ing should take place particularly after holidays 
when great masses of people have visited the 
church. 

(2) Every week all ordinary chairs and con- 
fessional chairs must be thoroughly cleaned with 
moist rags. 

(3) The grate of the confessional chairs must 
be washed every week with lye and then 
polished. 

It might be of advantage if such arti- 
cles of adoration as crosses, statues, or, as 
in Greek churches, pictures, which are 
often kissed by devout Catholics, be in 
eluded in the periodic disinfection. Kiss- 
ing the Bible when taking an oath should 
be discouraged by jurists and divines. 

Ministers of all denominations should 
consider it beneath their dignity to allow 
their names to be used to advertise patent 
medicines and other secret remedies. I am 
convinced that if they were aware of the 
fact that many of the advertised patent 
remedies contain as much as thirty and 
forty per cent of alcohol and often other 
dangerous ingredients, they would refrain 
from indorsing the use of medicines of 
whose composition they have not the least 
idea. Neither should religious newspapers 
lend their columns to the advertisement 
of nostrums and patented remedies of all 
sorts. It is to be regretted that patent 
medicines are also not infrequently recom- 
mended by statesmen and legislators. 
Their personal indorsement of this or 
that secret remedy, given without fore- 
thought and perhaps even with good in- 
tentions, has often done irreparable harm 
to the sufferers. 

Of the duties of the public press in this 
fight against the "great white plague," 
the most formidable disease of the masses, 
I cannot speak earnestly enough. Our 
daily and weekly papers have already 
done much good in disseminating knowl- 
edge regarding the prevention of con- 
sumption. By continuing to spread the 
literature of the various associations and 
committees on the prevention of tuber- 



Charities 



culosis as a disease of the masses, 
they do perhaps more than any other 
agent. 

Unfortunately, the public press serves 
also for the advertising of the many "ab- 
solutely sure consumptive cures," which 
are from time to time put on the mar- 
ket by unscrupulous quacks. I am nev- 
ertheless sanguine enough to hope that in 
time the better class of newspapers will, 
in the interest of the community at large, 
no longer extend the hospitality of their 
columns to such dangerous advertising 
matter, especially when it is protested 
against by the intelligent reader. How 
many poor consumptives have lost their 
last little reserve fund by giving every- 
thing they had for a dozen bottles of the 
"sure and quick cure," only those who 
come much in contact with them know. 
How unscrupulous some of these charla- 
tans are in their method of procuring 
certificates of cure, which they then pub- 
lish as bait to the unfortunate help-seek- 
ing sufferer, is something which can hard- 
ly be believed. Let me tell you of one in- 
stance : A poor woman in the last stages 
of consumption came to me seeking ad- 
vice. When asked for the name of her 
former medical attendant, she confessed 
that she had been treated for a number 
of weeks by a quack concern, and now, 
her means being exhausted, she was made 
to understand that they would not con- 
tinue to treat her unless she would give 
them a certified testimonial that she had 
been thoroughly cured of her disease, 
which had been pronounced an advanced 
case of consumption by prominent phy- 
sicians. This poor sufferer had not de- 
rived any benefit whatsoever from the 
treatment, and as a result her conscience 
would not permit her to become a partner 
to such a fraudulent procedure. 

Some of these unscrupulous concerns 
resort to absolute fraud to beguile the 
public by using the name of the great 
scientist and benefactor, Prof. Eob- 
ert Koch, of Berlin, as though he were 
.associated with them in their business 
and treatment. They advertise his pic- 
ture beside that of an individual with a 
similar name, and are heading their ad- 
vertisements as "Professor Eobert Koch's 
Cure." While the medical profession at 
large was, of course, aware of this evident 



fraud, the public did not seem to be, and 
in order to be able to give an official de- 
nial of any such connection, a member 
of the Committee on the Prevention of 
Tuberculosis of the Charity Organization 
Society of New York City wrote to 
Prof. Eobert Koch of Berlin, Germany. 
The professor's answer was a lengthy one 
and full of indignation, and I will give 
you only the substance of it. He says 
that the alleged "lung cure" of Dr. Ed- 
ward Koch, or under whatever name this 
system of treatment may be presented to 
the American public, is a very base fraud, 
and that . he, Geheimrath Professor Dr. 
Robert Koch, has no relations whatsoever 
with Dr. Edward Koch, with any other 
individual who may be connected with 
this concern, nor with any of its methods 
of treatment; neither has he ever had 
any relations with the same. He hopes 
that the committee on the prevention of 
tuberculosis may be successful in putting 
an end to this base and fraudulent con- 
cern. This is to be particularly desired 
in the interest of the many poor Consump- 
tives who have been deceived by the use 
of his name in connection with the so- 
called Koch's Consumption and Asthma 
Cure. 

There are numerous other concerns 
which put their secret consumption rem- 
edies on the market and resort to all sorts 
of illegitimate means to make people be- 
lieve that their "cures" are endorsed by 
the profession. Some claim to have the 
endorsement of the British Congress on 
Tuberculosis, others to be members of 
that congress; some even resort to most 
cunning means to make it appear that 
members of the tuberculosis committee of 
the New York Charity Organization So- 
ciety endorse their treatment. These rem- 
edies, when not harmful concoctions, are 
sometimes commonplace medicines sub- 
scribed daily by the profession. One firm 
puts up the prescription for a tonic given 
by a certain Vienna physician, styling 
this physician "Professor." 

The misuse of the name of this com- 
mittee and of some of its members has be- 
come so intolerable that the following res- 
olutions were adopted recently by the 
committee, and the lay press has been re- 
quested to give them the largest possible 
publicity : 



The Combat of Tuberculosis 



233 



Whereas, It lias come to the knowledge of the 
'Committee on Tuberculosis of the Charity Or- 
ganization Society that many so-called specific 
medicines and special methods of cure for tuber- 
culosis have b^en and are being exploited and 
widely advertised, and 

Whereas, The advertisements of some of these 
•cures have made such reference to the Tubercu- 
losis Committee of the Charity Organization 
Society, or to some of its members, as to create 
the inference that this committee, or its mem- 
bers, recommend or advocate the use of many 
such so-called specifics or special methods of 
cure for pulmonary tuberculosis, or consump- 
tion; and 

Whereas, There is no specific medicine for 
this disease known, and the so-called cures and 
specifics and special methods of treatment widely 
advertised in the daily papers are in the opinion 
of the committee without special value, and do 
not at all justify the extravagant claims made 
for them, and serve chiefly to enrich the pro- 
moters at the expense of the poor and frequently 
ignorant or credulous consumptives; therefore, 

Resolved, That a public announcement be made 
that it is the unanimous opinion of the members 
•of this committee that there exist no specific 
medicine for the treatment of pulmonary tuber- 
culosis, and that no cure can be expected from 
any kind of medicine or method except the 
regularly accepted treatment, which relies main- 
ly upon pure air and nourishing food. 

To break the nefarious trade of the 
man who deals in "sure and infallible" 
consumption remedies, to stop the prac- 
tice of the man and woman who claim 
to be able to diagnose and treat consump- 
tion by letter, the Christian scientists, the 
■faith curists, who ridicule preventive 
measures and the laws of cleanliness and 
hygiene — which are the laws of God — but 
who, as a token of faith, demand their 
fees in advance; we have but one weapon, 
and that is education — edu cation by a con- 
scientious press, the clergyman and the 
teacher. 

Factories, workshops, stores, offices, 
etc., should be sanitarily constructed and 
well ventilated, but besides this there are 
•other things which the employer can do 
in the combat of tuberculosis. In fac- 
tories, workshops, stores, offices, etc., 
there should always be a sufficient number 
of spittoons, preferably elevated and of 
unbreakable material. Wherever such 
precautions are taken and some conspicu- 
ous signs, forbidding expectorafiing on 
the floor, put up, and if necessary, mak- 
ing it punishable by law, promiscuous 
spitting will soon cease, and an important 
point in the combat of tuberculosis will 
he 2,-ained. 



All employees, men and women, of what- 
ever class, should be allowed ample and 
regular time for their meals, which 
should never be taken in the workshops. 
Lastly, employees should not be over- 
worked. There should be reasonable hours 
for all, so that the laborer may enjoy the 
bodily and mental rest which is essen- 
tial to the preservation of health. The 
germs of any disease, but particularly 
those of tuberculosis, will always find a 
more congenial soil for development in an 
overworked and enfeebled system. Child 
labor, that is to say, the employment of 
children under fourteen years of age, in 
factories, workshops, mines, etc., should 
be prohibited by law. The child is more 
susceptible to tuberculosis than the adult, 
especially when its delicate growing or- 
ganism is subject to continued physical 
strain. That there are still sections in 
our country where child labor is permit- 
ted to exist, is one of the saddest and most 
disgraceful blots upon the fair name of 
our nation. 

It is hardly fair to speak of the duty of 
the rich as philanthropists, for philan- 
thropy is a voluntary act, and the rich 
man cannot be compelled to give some of 
his wealth to his less fortunate fellowmen. 
Still less have we a right to dictate to a 
millionaire how to dispose of his wealth 
though he may be philanthropically in- 
clined. This country has, nevertheless, a 
right to be proud of many of its rich 
men and women, and I am the last to 
underestimate the fortunes which have 
been given to the various educational and 
religious institutions by our Carnegies, 
Rockefellers, Vanderbilts, Morgans, Pier- 
sons, Setoffs, onr Helen Goulds, Phoebe 
Hearsts, Emmons Blaines, etc., but it is 
natural that those of us familiar with the 
needs of the consumptive poor in this 
country should look for help in solving 
this difficult tuberculosis problem to the 
large-hearted American men and women 
who make such noble use of their wealth. 
There are now, perhaps, plenty of libra- 
ries and colleges, and even general hos- 
pitals, everywhere: but there is a scarcity 
of public baths, which should, at a mod- 
erate price, be at the disposal of the peo- 
ple every day, winter and summer, and 
for some hours in the evening. There is 
a scarcity of decently-kept places of 



234 



Charities 



amusement, open all the year, where the 
laborer and his family may spend a pleas- 
ant Sunday afternoon and partake of 
non-alcoholic drinks. There is a scarcity 
of hospital and sanatorium facilities for 
thousands of poor consumptives who 
could be cured if only taken care of in 
time. Sanatoria for consumptive adults, 
as well as seaside sanatoria for scrofulous 
and tuberculous children, are a crying 
and urgent need for the majority of our 
large American cities. The more con- 
sumptives we cure, the more breadwinners 
we create, and the fewer people will be- 
come burdens to the communities. As the 
conditions are now, in most of our cities 
and towns, the majority of consumptives 
are doomed to a certain and lingering 
death ; and if they are careless or ignorant 
of the necessary precautions they will in- 
fect some of their own kin and neighbors. 

There are from ten to fifteen thousand 
consumptive poor in New York City and 
there is hardly hospital and sanatorium 
accommodation for one thousand. The 
remainder are not treated at all, or re- 
ceive what treatment is possible in the 
home of the poor. Recent stat : sties, com- 
piled by the department of health of the 
city of New York show that during the 
past year 1,750 consumptives, who were 
finally received and have died in the pub- 
lic hospitals, had been homeless. They 
had slept in cheap lodging-houses, hall- 
ways, or wherever they could find shelter 
for the night. Thirty-seven of them were 
found dead in such places. What do 
these many homeless cases mean when 
viewed as sources of infection? This 
must give food for thought to statesman, 
sanitarian and philanthropist alike. 

Would that I could take some of our 
philanthropic friends to our densely 
crowded tenement districts and show 
them there the suffering of mind and 
body of the poor consumptive who must 
die, not because his disease was incurable, 
but because there was vo place to cure it. 
I am convinced that if our genetpous and 
wealth v fellow citizens would but see for 
themselves these conditions, instead of 
more libraries, universities and colleges, 
we would soon have better tenements, 
more playgrounds and parks for children, 
and an abundance of sanatoria and hos- 
pitals for our consumptive poor. 



A few more gifts, such as recently be- 
stowed by Charles M. Schwab in the 
shape of an extensive and beautiful play- 
ground to the children of New York, and 
by Henry Phipps, in the shape of a tu- 
berculosis institute for Philadelphia's 
consumptive poor, will work wonders in 
the reduction of the mortality from tuber- 
culosis. 

Concerning the recent magnificent 
donation of Mr. Rockefeller of seven mil- 
lion dollars to search for a specific medi- 
cine to cure consumption, I could wish 
that the University, respectively the city 
of Chicago, which is the recipient of the 
gift, were allowed to use the greater por- 
tion of these millions for the purchase of 
the worst tenements in that city and the 
erection of model houses for the laborer 
in their stead; for the establishment of 
a few playgrounds, for public baths, and 
last, but not least, for the establishment 
and maintenance of sanatoria for the poor 
and moderately poor consumptives. 

It remains only for me now to speak 
of the duties of the government. First, 
what is the duty of the local or muni- 
cipal government in the combat of tu- 
berculosis as a disease of the masses? 

Each city should have an efficient com- 
mittee on tuberculosis composed of a 
number of general practitioners, health 
officers, and trained charitv workers. This 
commission should have its offices in a 
building connected with a special dispen- 
sary for tuberculous patients. Each case 
applying should be carefully examined 
for the following purposes : 

(1) To determine the applicant's con- 
dition by medical examination. 

(2) To visit his home if he has been 
found tuberculous, and to institute such 
hvgienic measures as seem necessary 
(distribution of pocket spittoons, disin- 
fectants, etc., gratuitously if the patient 
is poor). 

(3) To examine the other members 
of the family, in order to find out if any 
of them have also contracted the disease, 
and, if so, to counsel proper treatment. 

(4) To report in full to the sanitary 
authorities concerning the condition of 
the patient's dwelling. Its renovation 
or even destruction may be imperative 
when it is evident that tuberculosis has 
become "endemic" there, owing to the 



The Combat of Tuberculosis 



235 



condition of the soil or to other sanitary 
defects. 

(5) To determine the financial con- 
dition, whether the patient is or is not 
able to pay, and whether or not by his 
being taken to an institution, the family 
will become destitute. 

If the latter should be the case, it would 
be necessary for provision to be made in 
some way for the family. In many cases 
a letter of inquiry sent to the former med- 
ical attendant of the patient would ma- 
terially aid in the work of the investi- 
gating committee. 

Any individual should have the right 
to present himself for examination, and 
every physician should be at liberty to 
recommend any person for examination 
to the board of his precinct or district. 

Every city should, of course, have an 
efficient health department, a building de- 
partment, tenement-house commission, 
street-cleaning department, and a board 
of education, all of them combining to 
render the city as sanitary as possible 
and thus combatting centers of contagion 
of tuberculosis and other diseases, keep- 
ing our streets as free from dust, filth 
and smoke as possible, preventing the 
construction of unsanitary, unsafe dwel- 
lings and the overcrowding in homes, 
sweatshops and factories, and making of 
the public schools where our children dwell 
so many hours models of perfect ventila- 
tion and places for true intellectual and 
physical development, thus furthering the 
physical and moral welfare of the entire 
community. 

Our state legislators should do their 
utmost to enact such laws as will secure 
always proper ventilation and light in 
public and private buildings. How nec- 
essary such laws are, you will believe 
when I tell you that there are in Man- 
hattan over- 200,000 and in Brooklyn 
over 125,000 dark interior rooms with- 
out a window of any kind and having no 
means of light and ventilation. Such 
attempts as are now before the New 
York legislature to cripple the work of 
the tenement-house commission and allow 
greedy contractors to continue to erect 
tenements without light and air, verita- 
ble breeding places of consumption, 
should receive the just condemnation of 
everv citizen in the land. 



Another feature in the combat of con- 
sumption, which to my mind has been 
somewhat neglected, is the prevention 
of tuberculosis among animals, for not- 
withstanding Professor Koch's recent de- 
claration at the tuberculosis congress in 
London, there is still too much evidence 
of the possibility of the transmission of 
tuberculosis from the bovine to the hu- 
man race. If I am rightly informed, 
there is an amendment proposed by the 
Live Stock Association which would en- 
able them to keep cattle in transit for forty 
consecutive hours without food or water. 
From an unsigned letter to the editor of 
the Evening Post, of January 29, I quote 
as follows: "The law as it now stands — 
depriving the unfortunate animals of 
those necessities for twenty-eight consec- 
utive hours, through summer's torrid heat 
and winter's chill — is inhuman enough. 
To extend this limit of endurance would, 
indeed, stamp us as a barbarous, dis- 
graced nation, not only in the eyes of the 
world, but what is worse, in our own esti- 
mation. The greed which would tempt a 
$600,000,000 organization to impose such 
a national inhuman stigma should call 
for loudest condemnation from the gov- 
ernment, from the press, and from indi- 
viduals." 

Let me add that we should not forget 
that close proximity of diseased and 
healthy individuals, lack of air and food, 
and other privations, are causes of the 
propagation of tuberculosis, not only 
among men but among animals as well, 
and that consumptive cattle may give 
consumption to man. 

State boards of health should receive 
ample appropriation to combat tubercu* 
losis among men and animals and be help- 
ful in creating state sanatoria and agri- 
cultural colonies for consumptive adults 
and seaside sanatoria for scrofulous and 
tuberculous children; also special hos- 
pitals and tuberculosis dispensaries; and 
lastly, the United States Government 
should, after the example of Great Brit- 
ain, France and Germany, not only have 
a ministry of public health, but also a 
special commission, appointed by the 
president of the United States, composed 
of expert sanitarians, physicians and 
veterinarians, who should unite with the 



^36 



Charities 



state and municipal sanitary authorities 
of the country in the combait of tuber- 
culosis in all its forms among man an 
beast. 

If every individual in his respective 
sphere, and the local, state and federal 
governments, would do their full duty in 
the combat of this fearful scourge of 



mankind, so justly called by Oliver Wen- 
del] Holmes "the great white plague," I 
am convinced that before many decades 
tuberculosis would be eradicated from our 
midst, and the United State- would have 
the honor of being the first among the 
nations of the earth to have accomplished 
this great and glorious work. 



FAKE" INSTALMENT BUSINESS AND ITS SOCIAL 
CONSEQUENCES. 



HENRY R. MUSSEY. 



The instalment business, the sale of 
goods on a system of weekly or monthly 
payments, has had a remarkable develop- 
ment in New York. If a man would have 
his clothes made to order for a dollar a 
week, he has only to repair to a tailoring 
firm on lower Broadway and his wish will 
be 'gratified. Indeed, one may buy a 
house and furnish it from top to bottom, 
he may clothe his family, he may deck 
himself with jewelry and all sorts of arti- 
cles of adornment, he may go abroad and 
■having seen Paris, he may die and be 
buried — all on the instalment plan, and 
this is no mere pleasantry, but sober fact. 

As in every other great city, the force 
of competition and the efforts of mer- 
chants to extend their trade among the 
less wealthy classes of consumers, have 
resulted in more and more liberal exten- 
sion of credit in many lines, until at pres- 
ent a large part of the trade in house 
furnishings, sewing machines, books, 
pianos, and some other goods is done on 
the instalment plan. In addition to this, 
there has grown up in New York a perver- 
sion of this method, depending primarily 
upon a most outrageous misuse of legal 
process against the poor and ignorant 
•among the non-English-speaking immi- 
grant population, and it is this perversion, 
the "fake" business, as it is called, which 
has ' been the primary occasion- of, this 



investigation. Correspondence reaching 
to a dozen states and covering the princi- 
pal cities of the country failed to disclose 
any parallel to the conditions existent in 
New York during the past half dozen 
years. Nowhere else, so far as can be 
learned, has there been the systematic sale 
of worthless goods at high prices, the sys- 
tematic use of legal process as a means 
to unblushing extortion, the systematic 
imprisonment for debt and for no debt, 
the systematic corruption of public offi- 
cials and courts, that have made the in- 
stalment business a hissing and a by- 
word all over the East Side of New York. 
For this remarkable fact I can offer no 
better explanation than the observation 
that there has been nowhere else just the 
combination of legal and social conditions 
that prevail in New York. 

In order to discuss the matter with any 
degree of intelligence, we must distin- 
guish at least three classes of instalment 
business, which I shall call the high grade, 
the low grade, and the "fake" business. 
By the high-grade instalment business, I 
mean the trade carried on chiefly with 
middle-class people by large concerns sell- 
ing house furnishings, books, pianos, and, 
to a limited extent, sewing machines — 
such houses, for example, as Oowper- 
thwait & Sons, the subscription depart- 
ment of Appleton's or Scribner's, the Pease 



[The abuses which have grown up in the instalment business of New York have aroused more than one 
organization to activity against certain of the dealers. The first half of last year a large part of the time of 
the Legal Aid Society was taken up in handling this sort of cases. Ludlow Street Jail had become, through 
technicalities of the state law and the collusion of certain dealers and officials, what was practically a debtor's 
prison. Early in the spring a committee was appointed by the University Settlement consisting of Samuel 
Thorne. Jr.. Henry W. Taft and W. Kirkpatrick Brice. The author of this article was engaged to carry on an 
investigation which extended through the summer. Instalment dealers, their customers, city marshals, court 
officials, attorneys, representatives of legal organizations and charity workers were seen, and jail and court 
records overhauled. A report will be issued shortly. Bills are now pending in the Legislature, introduced by 
Senator Elsberg and Assemblyman Agnew, which would do away with the body execution and the order of arrest 
in cases involving lesg than $100— a minimum even higher than that suggested by the investigator. The chances 
that they will pass are said to be good.— Ed.] 



Fake " Instalment Business 



237 



Piano Company, and, in a certain limited 
part of its trade, the Singer Manufactur- 
ing Company. By the low-grade business 
I mean the traffic in all lines of useful 
goods, such, for example, as furniture, 
household wares, clothing, sewing ma- 
chines, steamship tickets, and a thousand 
other articles, carried on chiefly through 
peddlers by a large number of small deal- 
ers, located mostly on the East Side, and 
doing business principally with a much 
poorer class of customers than the firms 
previously mentioned. By the "fake" 
business I mean the sale of jewelry and 
all sorts of useless ornamental gewgaws 
and articles of luxury at absurdly high 
prices, as well as the marvelous number 
of suits springing out of such sales and 
in no small degree constituting their rea- 
son for being — a business carried on by 
a comparatively few men, also located on 
the East Side, and selling almost alto- 
gether to the lowest class of the immi- 
grant population, largely the poorest and 
most ignorant Italians. It is this which 
is commonly meant when the instalment 
business is referred to on the East Side. 
It will be seen that the three classes of 
business are fairly distinct and require 
differing treatment, yet they shade off 
into one another by almost imperceptible 
gradations. To avoid all possibility of 
misunderstanding, let it be said once and 
for all that both the high and the low- 
grade business, while of extremely doubt- 
ful social utility, in my judgment, are 
none the less legitimate forms of business 
enterprise. The "fake" business, on the 
other hand, is economically, socially, 
legally, and morally vicious. It has no 
more claim than has highway robbery to 
be considered legitimate business. 

The characteristic feature of all in- 
stalment sales is that title to the property 
remains in the vendor until the full pur- 
chase price has been paid, or else the title 
passes and is immediately retransf erred 
to the vendor in the shape of a chattel 
mortgage. It is this separation of title 
and property which has been the occasion 
of all the grave abuses that have arisen. 
Under the New York law, if there is a 
default in payment the vendor is entitled 
to recover his property without repaying 
any part of the instalments alreadv paid. 

1 Articles !240, 1487 and 549 of the New York Civil Code. 



In case the return of the property be re- 
fused, he may begin an action for con- 
version. If he obtains judgment, he gets 
an execution against the property, and r 
failing the satisfaction of that, an execu- 
tion against the person of the debtor, who 
may thus be thrown into jail. 1 The stat- 
ute is, of course, intended to provide 
means of recourse against fraudulent 
debtors, but it is at present used princi- 
pally as a means of extortion by fraudu- 
lent creditors. 

The legitimate high-grade business 
was begun in New York shortly after the 
year 1807 by the founder of a present 
great house of instalment dealers which 
has continued a career of unbroken 
prosperity and maintained a reputation 
for honesty and fair dealing from that 
day to this. Beside this house which does- 
a business of half a million dollars a 
year, a number of younger firms of more 
or less similar character have grown up. 
The methods of all the great, houses are 
similar, and are quite remarkable in the 
sagacity they display and the good results 
they have to show. In general, their rules 
are directed toward making sales only to 
responsible people in receipt of a fairly 
regular income. The contract commonly 
takes the form of a lease or a chattel 
mortgage, the seller in any case having 
the right to recover the goods in case of 
default, as already pointed out, without 
returning any part of the instalments 
already paid in. With the best firms a 
deposit of at least ten per cent on sales is 
generally required, and a payment of not 
less than five per cent a month thereafter. 
Thus the maximum period of credit is 
nominally eighteen months. According 
to the unanimous testimony of dealers, 
customers and charity workers who have 
had opportunity to become familiar with 
their operations, the great dealers are on 
the whole remarkably lenient in treatment 
of delinquent customers. They exhaust 
all other possibilities before taking back 
goods, and that, as they have frequently 
stated, not in any large degree from 
philanthropic motives, hut purely as a 
matter of business. Nearly all difficulties 
with customers are settled out of court, 
about the only resort to legal process be- 
ing occasional replevin suits instituted for 



23» 



Charities 



the purpose of recovering goods placed in 
storage. The imprisonment of debtors 
on the charge of conversion is practically 
unknown. The dealers are unanimous 
in testifying that the abolition of the 
body-execution would make no difference 
at all to them. 

As their trade is carried on chiefly 
with people living on small incomes, it is 
claimed by the dealers that they are per- 
forming a valuable social service in 
-enabling a large number of persons to 
furnish their homes who could not other- 
wise do so. The prices charged are neces- 
sarily high, and the encouragement which 
the plan affords to the careless incurring 
•of debt, and the tendency to careless 
treatment of the things purchased, be- 
cause of the lack of any feeling of real 
■ownership — these two influences making 
against thrift, more than offset, in the 
opinion of some who have had special 
opportunity of knowing the facts, any 
advantage derived from the opportunity 
given the poor man to furnish his own 
liome. 

Conditions similar to those above de- 
scribed exist in the piano and book busi- 
ness. The machine business is, on the 
whole, of a distinctly lower order. An 
enormous instalment business is done by 
several large concerns. Sales are made 
in large part by agents who go about 
from house to house. The frequent 
complaints of the loss of machines 
partly paid for, are an indication 
of the greater severity of the methods 
of these companies. As many as nine 
persons were imprisoned by a single 
sewing-machine company during the 
year 1900. Machine contracts com- 
monly take the lease form, title remain- 
ing, as usual, in the vendor. A ma- 
chine valued at $25 to $35 may be bought 
upon deposit of $1 and a weekly payment 
of fifty cents. The period of credit does 
not extend much over a year, though the 
actual period of payment is often much 
longer. The purchasers are largely poor 
tailors or women dependent on the needle 
for their living. Hence the machine men, 
like all instalment dealers, make much of 
their philanthropic interest in their cus- 
tomers, and claim to be the poor man's 
best friends. Criticism of their work 
and methods should not be too severe. 



Quite possibly they are not more harsh 
in their methods of conducting it than 
is necessary in dealing with the class of 
customers to whom they cater. Yet it 
should be frankly recognized that their 
prices are high, in many cases unreason- 
ably high ; that their agents in many cases 
force sales by the exercise of altogether 
too great oersuasive power, and that they 
do not display by any means the same 
leniency toward the delinquents as do the 
great house furnishers. 

The most striking peculiarity of the 
low-grade business is that it is carried 
on wholly by means of peddlers. Fur- 
thermore, the business is done by a large 
number of small dealers, instead of a com- 
paratively few large ones. Again, they 
sell chiefly to persons who are quite poor, 
and their total trade is pretty largely con- 
fined to the lower East Side, the district 
which is taboo to some of the great deal- 
ers. The "fake" dealers constitute a 
small sub-group within- the low-grade 
dealers. It is estimated that the low- 
grade dealers number 200 men and em- 
ploy from 5,000 to 10,000 peddlers. 
These are of three classes: First, there 
are the so-called "custom peddlers," men 
who do business for themselves but have 
no shops. They are said to number not 
less than 500 men, and to have been doing 
business for at least twenty-one years. 
They sell their goods without any written 
contract whatever, and in case a pur- 
chaser refuses to make payment their 
goods are lost, as they have no contract. 
They are quite an honest class of men, 
and in this peculiar and interesting fash- 
ion have carried on their business with- 
out ever eretting into the courts or hav- 
ing any serious difficulty with their cus- 
tomers. 

Turning aside from this survival of 
older conditions the instalment peddlers 
proper, whose number runs into the thou- 
sands, are nearly all Jews, largely from 
Eastern Europe. They either act as 
"pullers-in," going about from house to 
house and bringing people into the shops, 
or else peddle goods from door to door. 
They often live herded together under 
conditions that make decent life impos- 
sible ; they work from early morning until 
night, commonly for a mere pittance 
above board and lodging. 



Fake " Instalment Business 



239 



The third class of peddlers, so-called, 
are dealers in all but the name. They 
have no shops, but buy goods from the 
larger dealers or the wholesalers, selling 
in their own name on instalments. 
After learning the tricks of the trade 
under a boss almost any peddler can set 
up in business for himself under the re- 
markable credit conditions prevailing on 
the East Side. 

The larger dealers are simply those 
picked out by a process of natural selec- 
tion, whether by reason of greater ex- 
perience, shrewdness, rascality, or any of 
the thousand and one qualities that con- 
tribute to business success. 

As for the goods in which the low- 
grade business is done, the following ad- 
vertisement may prove suggestive: 

DEALEK IN 

Cloacks, Clothing, rugs, Extension springs, 

wringers. 

Albums, Lace and Chenille Curtains, Table 

covers. 

Furniture, Jewelry, Pictures, Etc. 

Weekly or monthly payments taken. 

Please send a postal card and I will call. 

An enormously large business is done 
in steamship tickets, persons sending 
them to friends in Europe, and paying 
for them at the rate of a few dollars a 
week. Young women buy hats for fifty 
cents a week. Men buy shirts and collars 
on similar terms. So one might go on 
extending the list indefinitely. Prices 
of course must be high, and often are 
exorbitant. Three and four times the 
actual value of goods is by no means an 
uncommon figure, but it is not the rule. 

The relations between peddlers and 
dealers are themselves peculiar and com- 
plicated, giving rise to much dishonesty. 
In the first place, there are peddlers who 
simply take out goods and sell them for 
the dealers, receiving a fixed amount each 
week. They are nothing more nor less 
than salaried agents. Others sell on com- 
mission. A third class, whom I have 
called the peddler dealers, take out goods 
"on memorandum." It is not uncommon 
at all for a peddler to gradually obtain 
credit for several hundred dollars with- 
out security. 

Much trouble between peddlers and the 
small jobbers has resulted. Arrests and 
imprisonments have been of growing fre- 
quency. A member of one jewelry firm 



says that they have $50,000 out in this 
kind of trade. 

In sharp contrast to this loose credit 
arrangement between jobber and peddler 
is the contract between seller and pur- 
chaser. This contract is really remark- 
able for the completeness with which the 
purchaser signs away all possible rights 
except the one of gaining title to the 
property when it is completely paid for. 
Entire protection is afforded the dealer 
against any possible promises by his 
agents. Moreover, in nine cases out of 
ten, the purchaser cannot read English, 
and has not the least conception of the 
provisions of the contract. Such contracts 
made under such conditions by peddlers 
such as have been described evidently 
throw the door wide open to fraud. 

The "fake" business is said to have 
been begun about seven years ago by a 
dealer known all over the East Side to- 
day as the father of the instalment busi- 
ness and the prince of the fakirs. Nearly 
all of the dealers have been his pupils at 
one time or another. 

The number of these "fake" dealers 
is comparatively small. The worst of 
them are not more than a dozen in num- 
ber, and I question if there are altogether 
fifty men to whom the term can fairly 
be applied. But "fake" methods are em- 
ployed by other than "fake" dealers. The 
genuine "fake" business has for its pur- 
pose the obtaining of cash on an instal- 
ment contract. Niine-tenths of the cases 
of unfairness have to do with jewelry. 
The significance of all this lies in the 
fact that the purpose of a large part of 
these sales is absolutely fraudulent, and 
jewelry lends itself with especial readi- 
ness to such fraudulent purposes. 

Almost all the jewelry handled is eight 
and ten carats fine, though it is all marked 
fourteen, contrary to the laws of New 
York. A watch movement costing $2.75 
and a case costing $18 sell for $60 to 
$65. A ring sold on the instalment plan 
for $6; its duplicate cost eighteen cents. 
It is sometimes rashly stated that the 
first payment in all these cases covers the 
whole value of the goods. This is rarely 
true. In several kinds of jewelry I have 
yet to find a case in which the agreed 
price was not from three to five times 
the true value of the article. The ped- 



240 



Charities 



dler is instructed to make the first pay- 
ment as large as possible, but if obliged 
to come down to nothing, to get the busi- 
ness anyway — and he does it. 

Sales are made largely to women while 
their husbands are away at work. The 
agent edges his way in, often an unwel- 
come visitor, and begins displaying his 
wares. The woman, in spite of herself, 
is interested. She learns that this trinket 
may be had for fifty cents, and as for the 
twenty-five cents a week, that is a very 
small sum, and its payment is distant 
enough to be no occasion for present 
worry. ^ In a moment she has tried on the 
bauble, and before she knows what has 
happened she has made a mark on a paper 
whose purport she does not understand, 
the peddler has put down her husband's 
name and is gone, leaving her with her 
trinket and a debt that is quite as likely 
as not to land her husband in jail before 
he is done with it. The agents resort to 
the most wretched subterfuge and deceit. 
They leave old goods as "samples," as- 
suring customers that the real articles 
will be brought by the collector. Broken 
and defective clocks, phonographs and the 
like are sold with the promise of repairs. 
Other goods are promised in addition to 
those actually delivered. Of course the 
most unblushing falsehoods are told re- 
garding quality and value. A curious 
fact was the marking of jewelry with the 
letters A. T. The peddler's assurance 
that it was A. T. jewelry was sufficiently 
near "eighteen," so that the purchaser be- 
lieved he was getting eighteen carat 
goods. 

Watches are in some instances left 
"for trial" with persons who do not 
care to buy, the agent simply getting the 
purchaser to make his mark on a receipt, 
which, of course, turns up as an instal- 
ment contract. Persons are persuaded to 
sign as guarantors or simply witnesses, 
and are immediately dragged into the fol- 
lowing suits as principals. 

As for the contract itself, it is often 
made out in pencil, so that it is a simple 
matter to change it at will. Thus a con- 
tract calling for twenty-five cents a week 
may be changed to $i. Sometimes the 
names are changed. This is simple 
enough, as the purchaser only makes his 
mark. Hence, if he goes away, it is easy 



to substitute his landlord's name, or that 
of some friend. 

The first feature of a "fake" sale is> 
then, a price in itself presumptive evi- 
dence of fraud and a contract carelessly 
made out, lending itself with the great- 
est readiness to fraudulent changes. 
More than this, a considerable proportion 
of jewelry sales are made to give occasion 
for law suits and thus to secure cash on 
instalment contracts. It is this thing 
which, in my definition, constitutes the 
very essence and perfection of the "fake" 
business. If further evidence be needed 
than the enormous number of suits 
brought, it may be found in the fact that 
jewelry is sold principally and peddlers 
are especially instructed to sell to the 
Italians, who are notoriously irrespon- 
sible in financial matters, celebrated as 
patrons of the pawnshops, easily wrought 
upon by fear of imprisonment, and very 
ready to help one another in trouble, 
even to the extent of helping pay debts. 
Clearly enough, they would be the last 
persons on earth to whom one would wish 
to make a genuine instalment sale, for a 
man's friends are no less ready to help 
him avoid payment when possible, than to 
help him pay when face to face with the 
alternative of the jail. 

Given a purely "fake" sale, then, and 
default in payment falls in perfectly with 
the dealer's plans; any one of the dozens 
of unfilled promises of the agent may be 
the cause of sufficient dissatisfaction to 
make the buyer refuse payment. If so, 
well and -o-ood. On the other hand, though 
the purchaser may be perfectly ready to 
make his payments no one appears to col- 
lect them. Now all is ready, and the 
dealer sends the purchaser what is called 
a "lawyer letter," purporting to come 
from the dealer's attorney, but, in many 
cases, emanating from his own office. 
This letter states that settlement must be 
made by a given date, or suit will be 
brought. In many cases the mere threat 
is effectual, and the claim for the full 
amount of the purchase is paid, including 
a lawyer's fee, most, if not all, of which 
goes into the dealer's pocket. More often, 
however, no attention is paid to the letter, 
or else no offer of settlement is made 
other than the return of the goods. These 
the dealer invariably refuses to take back. 



Fake " Instalment Business 



241 



The suit is brought. How frequently this 
occurs the records of the municipal courts 
show. During the year 1901 Adolph 
Teitelbaum brought 386 suits in the 
Fourth District Court; Louis Miller, 122; 
and other known dealers 104, while for 
the same period the records of the Second 
District Court show that Philip and Isaac 
Stromberg furnished 587 cases, and 
Charles Ludwin 346. The records of the 
Fifth District Court would show similar 
results. Out of a total of somewhere near 
9,000 cases in the Second and Fourth 
District Courts, five men contributed no 
less than 1,444, and it is safe to say that 
one-sixth of all the business of the over- 
crowded courts of the_three great East 
Side districts is due to the pernicious ac- 
tivity of not more than fifty men. 

With the bringing of the suit comes a 
second complication and further dishon- 
esty of a more serious character. The city 
marshals, who serve summonses in such 
cases, being paid by a system of fees, are 
naturally anxious to get as much business 
as possible. Some of them find it profit- 
able to be in alliance with the dealers, 
who do so large a legal business. Accord- 
ingly, each dealer has a marshal, who 
ordinarily serves, or rather, does not serve, 
his summons, and is known as "his mar- 
shal/ 7 Of course, one marshal does busi- 
ness for more than one dealer. But there 
are, or rather have been, four especially 
prominent "instalment marshals." Of 
these, the notorious William H. Lee, who 
was dismissed from office by Mayor Low 
during the past summer after having been 
guilty of almost every act of official 
wrong-doing possible, had for some years 
done practically all of Teitelbaum's busi- 
ness, and was known as his man. A 
former employee of the latter states that 
on this business Lee used to make some- 
times $75 a day, and that he sometimes 
went out with a wagon in which to bring 
in prisoners. Marshal Comisky, who has 
for months been under charges of the 
most serious character, is "Phil Strom- 
berg's marshal." One marshal went so 
far as to solemnly assure me that he, him- 
self, was the only honest man among the 
entire thirty-seven. Give a corrupt mar- 
shal a summons to serve on some mere 
"dago," and it is much easier, quicker, 
and more profitable to sit down in the 



office and mark it served than to go to the 
trouble and expense of hunting up the 
man. An assistant to one of the most 
prominent marshals has assured me that 
not fifty per cent of the summonses is- 
sued to their office in instalment cases 
were ever served. Even if non-service of 
summons is alleged, the allegation can be 
supported only by the testimony of an ig- 
norant and timid foreigner, more or less 
confused as to the meaning of the whole 
process, while on the other side there is 
the sworn statement of service of a city 
officer, backed up by the oath of the dealer 
and an assistant or two. 

On the day marked for trial, no defend- 
ant appears — naturally enough, having re- 
ceived no summons. A judgment is en- 
tered by default, adjudging the defendant 
guilty of conversion, thus rendering him 
subject to arrest and imprisonment, ac- 
cording to the provision of law described 
earlier in this article. The first docu- 
ment issuing out of the court, then, is an 
execution against the property, which 
must be given to the marshal for service. 
Without leaving his office, and sometimes, 
it is said, without even leaving the office 
of the clerk of the court, he makes his 
return on the execution, "unsatisfied." 
Thereupon the dealer immediately ob- 
tains an execution against the person of 
the debtor. The legal, or illegal, process 
is now complete. All that remains is to 
collect the booty. 

Armed with a dozen or so of these body 
executions, the marshal and the dealer, 
accompanied possibly by other dealers and 
an assistant or two, sally forth, often at 
two and three o'clock in the morning. 
Some hours later they return, laden with 
prisoners and plunder. In many cases 
the first intimation the unfortunate debtor 
has that any action has been taken against 
him is when he is awakened in the night 
with a demand for the full amount of 
his contract, plus a generous bill of costs, 
under penalty of immediate arrest and 
incarceration in jail. Under such cir- 
cumstances surprisingly large amounts of 
money are collected from persons who ap- 
parently have nothing. Bills ranging 
from $10 to $75 are thus collected, the 
debtor not only giving up every cent he 
has himself, but borrowing right and left 
from his friends, who contribute right 



242 



Charities 



loyally for the sake of keeping the prison 
doors from closing on poor Tony. But 
in about one case in four the debtor either 
cannot or will not pay, and therefore goes 
to the Ludlow Street Jail, where he is 
boarded and lodged at the expense of the 
county for a period varying from a day or 
two to three months, the latter being the 
time limit in conversion cases for small 
amounts. 

Even more reprehensible than the prac- 
tices of the marshals are the actions of 
their assistants, who work for the dealers 
without so much as a shadow of legal 
authority, and without any of the re- 
straints imposed on the former by their 
official position. 

Even in that half of the cases in which 
due process of law is observed, the most 
serious injustice in often done. A fright- 
ened foreigner is pitted against unequal 
odds. The most open and unblushing 
perjury is daily committed in these cases. 
Sometimes judgment has been given be- 
fore the defendant understands that the 
real trial has begun. 

One step further and we shall have 
traversed practically the whole ground, 
and that step brings us to the series of 
"hold-ups" that have been perpetrated al- 
most without pretense of legal authority 
by a few of the most daring dealers. The 
employment of "fake" marshals, the use 
of physical violence on recalcitrant vic- 
tims, the employment of threats of all 
kinds, the use of the fear generated by 
years of oppression to exact contributions 
from persons against whom they have not 
the shadow of a claim — these mark the 
completest development of the "fake" 
business. It is the habitual use of such 
methods that has finally resulted in the 
arrest of the Strombergs on the criminal 
charge of extortion, but the employment 
of such methods goes on, though they are 
used with a greater degree of care. 
Meanwhile, proceedings against the 
Strombergs in Kings County have ap- 
parently been dropped. No especial care 
is taken to arrest the right man. Men 
have been put in jail on contracts made 
by their boarders. Husbands are hab- 
itually arrested on contracts made by 
their wives. In one curious instance, a 
man was arrested within a week of his 
arrival from Ttalv. on a contract made 



by his brother some months before the 
man left Europe, 

During 1900 there were lodged in 
the Ludlow Street Jail on body execu- 
tions 697 persons, of whom Teitelbaum 
furnished 123, the Strombergs, 175, Lud- 
win 81, and seven other instalment deal- 
ers 115. Out of 697 body executions is- 
sued out of the municipal courts of New 
York in 1900, no less than 594 were is- 
sued in instalment cases. In 1901 we 
find that 561 body executions were issued, 
of which 452 were instalment cases. As 
for marshals, Lee has 149 arrests, Com- 
isky, 174; Angermann, 88, five other East 
Side marshals, 107; all others, only 43. 
Of all persons imprisoned in such cases 
during 1901, 11.8 per cent were indebted 
in sums of $10 or less; 33.7 per cent be- 
tween $10 and $25; 36.3 per cent between 
$25 and $50 ; 9.6 per cent between $50 and 
$75 ; and only 8.6 per cent above $75. Men 
have been put in jail in several cases for 
as small amounts as $5, and the costs in 
these small cases commonly exceed the 
original claim. 

A conservative estimate of the number 
of suits brought by instalment dealers in 
the Second, Fourth, and Fifth District 
Municipal Courts in 1901 is 2,000—2,000 
suits brought, a majority of them stained 
by perjury and blackened by official dis- 
honor, almost all of them involving seri- 
ous injustice and originating in inten- 
tional fraud on one side or both ; 452 men 
thrown into Ludlow Street Jail, of whom 
probably not much more than half had 
been served with any process of law what- 
ever, of whom an even larger proportion 
had been guilty of no worse crime than 
ignorance and weakness — such is a part 
of one year's record of the "fake" instal- 
ment business. Of all that part, even 
blacker, if possible, which goes on entirely 
without the pale of the law, it is impos- 
sible to give any such detailed presenta- 
tion. 

During the first half of 1902, and espe- 
cially during the second charter, owing 
to the splendid fight made by the Legal 
Aid Society against the dealers and cor- 
rupt marshals, there was a notable fall- 
ing off in the number of arrests and suits. 
But, obviously this society cannot spend 
all of its time fighting instalment cases. 

Whatever opinion may be entertained 



Fake " Instalment Business 



43 



as to the responsibility of the presiding 
judges for such conditions, and charges of 
unfairness are not lacking, it is obvious 
that where two litigants are as unequal in 
every way as the instalment dealer and 
his ordinary debtor, the interests of sub- 
stantial justice require that the defendant 
be given all possible opportunity to pre- 
sent his case. Certainly no man acquaint- 
ed with the practice of the municipal 
courts and their perfunctory manner of 
hurrying over instalment suits can main- 
tain that this requirement is even pass- 
ably well complied with. 

Such a system is breeding hatred for 
law among a class of people who es- 
pecially need respect for law, but who are 
compelled to look upon it as made for the 
oppression rather than for the defense of 
the poor and weak. 

One phase of the "fake" business has 
been lightly passed over, but should be 
brought out with all possible emphasis. 
An instalment dealer in jewelry will dis- 
play a large pile of his "leases" which 
represent runaway accounts and will tell 
long stories, mostly true, no doubt, of his 
vain search for dishonest debtors who 
have eluded him. Instances of men being 
found with ten or a dozen pawn tickets 
for goods bought on the instalment plan 
are by no means unknown. I seriously 
question whether, outside of the dis- 
regard for law engendered hy the abuse 
of law, there is any of the social effects 
of the traffic more pernicious than its 
encouragement of dishonesty by persons 
shrewd enough not to get caught. 

By way of analysis, where shall the line 
be drawn between legitimate and illegiti- 
mate business? Any instalment sale at a 
price not absurdly high, made with a 
reasonable expectation of collecting the 
agreed price at approximately the speci- 
fied time from a buyer unconstrained by 
fear of legal process, is a legitimate sale. 
On the other hand, a sale, in which pay- 
ment can be expected only as the buyer is 
compelled to pay either by suit or by the 
fear of suit and arrest is illegitimate. In 
other words, the legitimacy of an instal- 
ment sale depends on the basis of the 
credit. If based on the habitual honesty 
and business training of both debtor and 
creditor, it is legitimate ; if on the buyer's 
fear of legal process, illegitimate. Hence 



any sale to a man or class of men known' 
to be habitually dishonest is ipso facto 
illegitimate. However theoretical these 
considerations may appear, they are vital 
to an intelligent treatment of the prac- 
tical problem of reform. To attack 
legitimate credit is worse than futile. On 
the other hand, business based on illegiti- 
mate credit inevitably leads to abuse. 

The sale of jewelry, watches, and or- 
namental goods of bad quality to socially 
undeveloped people who have no use for 
them, and upon liberal terms of credit, is 
economically wrong, and under existent 
conditions in New York extremely in- 
jurious to society. It is puerile to say 
that these people ought to be able to take 
care of themselves. A perverted form of 
economic life is working the most serious 
social injury. No one but the veriest 
doctrinaire will deny that it is the plain 
duty of the legislature to destroy that 
perversion if possible. 

Who or what is responsible? It is easy 
to answer: the wickedness of the dealer, 
but the answer is superficial. The first 
large cause is this — that competition has 
stretched credit to the breaking point. 
Unlimited and unregulated credit work- 
ing under conditions of general ignorance,, 
poverty and small moral development on 
the one side and hardly less ignorance 
and hardly more moral development on 
the other, but combined there with greater 
shrewdness and more of the power of 
money working under such conditions, 
it has wrought havoc and must always 
work havoc. Evidently enough, the only 
remedy for the concurrence of economic 
and social conditions that are at bottom 
responsible for the traffic, then is educa- 
tion economic, legal, and moral. But 
this does not say that nothing can be im- 
mediately done to remedy conditions. 

The immediate responsibility for the 
legal abuses mentioned must be laid at 
the door of the city marshals and their 
assistants, and the judges of the munici- 
pal courts. 

It is safe to say that no possible reform 
of the marshal system will absolutely 
break up the alliance between some of the 
marshals and the dealers. 

It cannot be said that if the judges 
used greater care justice would be done. 
The ignorance of the purchaser, the al- 



244 



Charities 



liance of marshal and dealer, the per- 
jured testimony of hired witnesses will 
still do their work. 

What then is to he done? Only two 
possible alternatives, then, remain. Either 
put the business under the strictest pos- 
sible public regulation and so reduce its 
-evils to the lowest limit, or better, if pos- 
sible, abolish "fake" business altogether. 
The immediate and practical way to ac- 
complish this last highly desirable result 
is to abolish the right to the body execu- 
tion -Jn instalment cases where the 
.amount involved is less than $50, or pos- 
sibly $75. The first figure would include 
more than eighty per cent of all the cases 
in which arrests have been made, while 
the second would take in more than 
ninety per cent. The operation of such a 
law would be simple. The "fake" dealer 
would be obliged, in self-defense, to stop 
selling to that class of people whom he 
cannot trust except as he holds over them 
the threat of arrest. That is to say, he 
would be practically forced out of busi- 
ness, for "fake" sales are made almost 
altogether to irresponsible people. Credit 
will necessarily resume its proper basis, 



a knowledge of the responsibility of the 
purchaser. 

In conversation with the legitimate 
dealers of all sorts and conditions I have 
failed to find one who objects to the 
abolition of the body execution. A fact 
such as this should dispose of the conten- 
tion of those who maintain that such 
action would be putting a premium on 
dishonesty. Again, it is argued that such 
a limitation of credit will work injury by 
making it impossible, for example, for a 
woman to buy a sewing machine on in- 
stalments. The person who is known to 
be deserving credit can get it whether the 
dealer holds the club of the body execu- 
tion or not. Without hesitation I declare 
that no business which depends on the 
body execution has any right to exist. 

The records of New York County for 
1900 and 1901 show that the proportion 
of instalment cases to the whole number 
of body executions was over eighty-three 
per cent. It is suggested that in all 
probability the records of other counties 
would show a still greater disuse of the 
body execution for general litigation and 
that its abolition therefore would be no 
hardship. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



OF CUEEENT SOCIAL THOUGHT AND EFFORT 



I— RECENT AMERICAN AND ENGLISH 
BOOKS. 

Baird. Addisov W. Tuberculosis Communicable, Pre- 
ventable, Curable. New York : James T. Dougherty, 
1903. Pp. 30. Paper 25c. 

Capital and Labor by a Blacklisted Machinist. Chi- 
cago : C. H. Kerr & Co., 1902. Pp. 4+203. Paper 25c. 

Henderson, C. Richmond. Practical Sociology in the 
Service of Social Ethics. Chicago : University of 
Chicago Press, 1902. Pp. 25. 25c. 

Parliamentary Papers. London : Through P. S. 
King & Son. 

Charities. County of Montgomery. Reports on 

the charities of each parish. Pp.362. 3/1. 
Common Lodging-houses. Report by the medical 

officer on accommodation for women in common 

lodging-houses. 600. 6d. 
Friendly Societies. Chief registrar's report for 

1901. Part B. 
Industrial and Provident Societies. Pp. 109. I. 

1/9. 
Industrial and Provident Societies. PartC. Trade 

Unions. Pp. 109. II. 5d. 
Housing. Schemes under the housing acts, dis- 
placements effected, rehousing accommodations 

provided, etc. Particulars up to March 31, 1902. 

Pp. 596. Is. 
Tables Prepared by the Housing Manager. Pp. 601. 

2d. 
Showing number of tenements, shops, workshops, and 
cubicles open on March 31, 1901 ; number opened during 



1901-1902. with number of persons accommodated ; 
amounts lost through empty tenements and irrecover- 
able rents ; population in the council's dwellings, 1901 ; 
births, deaths, infectious diseases, etc.; percentage of 
total outgoings on the rent actually received in respect 
of the dwellings during the last five years. 

Inebriates. Report of the Inspector of Retreats 

for 1901. Pp. 1317. 2/4. 
Poor. Number of indoor and outdoor paupers re- 
lieved on Jan. 1, 1902, in each union, etc., with 
comparative statements from 1862-1902. Pp. 
147. I. 6d. , 
Workhouses. Nursing. Report of Local Govern- 
ment Board Committee on the nursing of the sick 
poor in workhouses. 

Turner, Loretta E. How Women Earn a Competence. 

North Fairfield, O., Loretta E. Turner, 1903. 8+320 pp. 

CI. $1.25. 
Van Vorst, Mrs. J. and Marie. The Woman Who Toils. 

New York: Doubleday, Page & Co., 1903. Pp. 8+303. 

II., cl., $1.50. 



II— " CHARITIES " FOR FEBRUARY. 

Almshouse. 

The Stockade and, Log Chain of the Missouri Alms- 
house. (Feb. 28.) 
Charities and Corrections. 

The Second New Jersey Conference. (A. W. Abbott.) 

The Third Virginia Conference. 

The Seventh Nebraska Conference. (John Davis.) 

The Third Kansas Conference. (Feb. 28.) 



Loose Threads in a Skein 



245 



Child Labor. 

What Boston has Done in Regulating Street Trades 

for Children. (Pauline Goldmark.) (Feb. 14. ) 
Newsboy Wanderers are Tramps in the Making. 

(Ernest Poole.) (Charities— Feb. 14.) 
Children. 

A Public Clinic for Cripples and What it Revealed 

in an Ohio Town. (Feb. IO 
The Berkshire Industrial Farm. (Seymour H. 

Stone.) (Feb. 7.) 
Seward Park Playground at Last a Reality. 

(Charles B. Stover.) (Feb. 7.) 

Legislation. 

Charitable Legislation 1903. (Feb. 21.) 
Pauperism. 

The Importance of Stopping Outdoor Relief to 
Chronic or Hereditary Paupers. (Robert Treat 
Paine.) (Feb. 7.) 

Reformatories. 

What the Abolition of Bedford Reformatory Would 
Mean. (.Feb. 28.) 

Tenements. 

Tinkering With New York's Tenement-house Law. 
(Feb. 21.) 

Trachoma. 

A Crusade for a Thousand Eyes. (R. C. W. Wads- 
worth.) (Feb. 7.) 

Tuberculosis. 

The Crusade Against Tuberculosis Knows No Geog- 
raphy. (Feb. 14.) 

Ill— MAGAZINES OF THE WEEK. 

Boys' Clubs. 

The Catholic Boys' Club of New York. 
We Want Workers for Catholic Boys'" Clubs. (Patrick 
J. Sweeney.) (St. Vincent De Paul Quarterly— 
Feb.) 
Children. 

Children of the Jewish Poor. (Boris D. Bogen.) 

(American Hebrew — Feb. 27.) 
The Rights of Children. (Carrie L. Grout.) (Arena 
—March.) 

Child Labor. 

The Ethical Injustice of Child Labor. (Louise Fiske 
Bryson.) (Churchman— Feb. 28.) 

Crime. 

A Pulpit Crusade against Crime in Kentucky. 
(Literary Digest— Feb. 28.) 
Education. 

Widening the Use of Public Schoolhouses. (Syl- 
vester Baxter.) (World's Work— March.) 



Homes. 

Old-age Homes in Denmark. (Edith Sellers.) 
(Current Literature— March.) 

Hospitals. 

The Work of a Hospital Almoner. (C. H. d'E. 
Leppington.) (Charity Organisation Review— 
Feb.) 

Immigration. 

In the Gateway of Nations. (Jacob A. Riis.) (Cen- 
tury—March.) 

Protected Emigration of Women to South Africa. 
(New Liberal Review, London— Feb.) 

Insane. 

A Ripper Bill for the State Asylums. (Editorial.) 
(Philadelphia Medical Journal— Feb. 28.) 

Centralization and State Charitable Institutions. 
(George E. Dunham.) (St. Vincent de Paul Quar- 
terly— Feb.) 

Nursing. 

A Guild Settlement for Visiting Nurses. (Margaret 
Pearson.) (American Journal of Nursing— Feb.) 

Penology. 

Young Men in Prison. (Chaplain Monro.) (Christ- 
ian Intelligencer— Feb. 25.) 

Prison Life in the Kings County Penitentiary. 
(Thomas J. Mulvey.) (St. Vincent de Paul Quar- 
terly— Feb.) 

Poor Law. 

The Problem of the Children. 

The Workhouse— Cotdd We Abolish It? (Municipal 
Journal— Feb. 20.) 

Tenements. 

Fighting Tenement Reform. (Co-operation— Feb. 28.> 

The Race Question. 

Changed Opinions on the Race Question. 
Larger Forces than Race Politics. 
How Race Politics Narrow the Horizon. 
The Negro Himself. (World's Work— March.) 

Tuberculosis. 

A Practical Talk to the Nurses of Tuberculous Pa- 
tients. (S. A. Knopf.) (American Journal of 
Nursing— March.) 
The Proposed New Jersey Sanatorium for Tubercu- 
lous Diseases. (Editorial.) (Medical Record— 
Feb. 28.) 



A Crusade Against Tuberculosis. 
March.) 



(World's Work- 



LOOSE THREADS IN A SKEIN. 



It was at the farewell meeting the past 
week to her father, the general of the 
Salvation Army, that consul Booth-Tucker 
told a story not inappropriate to the occa- 
sion. Her little daughter was ill a while 
ago, but work called the mother elsewhere. 
At best, it was hard to leave the little one 
— harder for the little one to have her, 
she had thought. 

"Don't go mamma," said the child. "But 
I must," said the mother, and she tried 
to explain how there were other people 
sick and suffering more than they, whom 
she must go and see and help. It seemed 
to impress her daughter — the little one 
comes of a stock born to the service of 
others. 



"I'spose you've got to go," came the 
answer, at last and hesitatingly — and then 
— "but mamma, leave the candy." 

* * 
* 

Those who have read the "Making of an 
American" — and who has not? — will remem- 
ber the tribute it is which a son pays to a 
mother — a tribute which, perhaps, finds its 
happiest expression in that chapter, "Going 
Home to iMother," but which really begins 
with the first sentence of the book, and 
does not end with the last, and which is 
written largely in and between all the lines 
that intervene. 

It had been Mr. Riis's intention to visit 
Denmark again the coming summer — he 



246 



Charities 



had been counting on it these many months. 
Last week he was lecturing in the West 
when a cablegram came telling that the 
lengthening cord of years was snapped; the 
home coming he had planned, was not to be. 

* * 

w 

Among the newspaper items, called forth 
by a February storm in New York, was 
one which might be described as sensational, 
if it were not also instructive. The author 
evidently had in mind theses on the evils 
of public outdoor relief under such 
stress of circumstances. It appeared in 
the New York Times, under the heading: 

"PARK SQUIRRELS STARVING." 

Made ^Improvident by Generous Visitors 

Who Neglected Them During the 

Storm — Rescue Parties Sent. 

"Owing to the generous provision ordi- 
narily made for them by their little visi- 
tors, the squirrels in Central Park have be- 
come improvident, and, unlike their for- 
bears, neglected to pile up a store of food 
in their nests for consumption during hard 
times. But in the last two days the chil- 
dren have been stormbound in their own 
homes, and the squirrels found two feet of 
snow around the trees and no food in sight. 
When a chance pedestrian plowed his way 
through the snow on the paths the little 
animals climbed briskly down from their 
nests and fairly begged for food. 

"The destitute condition of the little ani- 
mals was reported to Superintendent John 
Smith of the Park menagerie, and yester- 
day he loaded Keepers Shannon and Snyder 
with a bushel basket of peanuts and sent 
them to the rescue. 

"Along the east paths, through the two 
feet of snow on the walks, the keepers 
strode, scattering peanuts as they went, 
causing rapid scurrying forms to leap 
through the heavy drifts in search of the 
nuts. Along the west side of the Park, 
Keeper Conway of the sheepfold undertook 
the task of succoring the squirrels. 

"Superintendent Smith said that he would 
continue to feed the squirrels until the 
weather became good enough to tempt the 
regular providers to come out again with 
their nurses and take charge of their pets." 

* * 

* 

A club woman gave a talk at a Chi- 
cago settlement, according to the Reoord- 
Herald, the purpose of which was to im- 
press upon the mothers present the im- 
perative duty of teaching children to re- 
spect their fathers. The weaknesses and 
mistakes of the latter should be hidden 
from the children at all hazards, she con- 
tended, and great would be the gain and 
benefit to all concerned. 

"And you'll find it always possible to hide 
the father's weaknesses from the children, 
dear friends," she concluded, with the easy, 
hopeful assurance of the talker who has 



never yet confronted the stern facts of a 
given problem, "if you'll only half try. I 
know}" smiling brightly, "because I've 
tried." 

Up rose, in eager anxiety, a woman who 
lived in a single room in a wretched tene- 
ment, and suffered many marital trials. 

"An' what do ye do?" inquired this 
woman eagerly, "when yer man comes home 
drunk?" 

* * 
* 

Another Chicago club woman is known 
for her dignified presence and handsome 
clothes. She makes a point of donning 
the most pleasing and effective of the latter 
when she visits the social settlements, just 
as she carries flowers and bright pictures 
thither whenever she can. She wore, upon 
the occasion of a recent address to the 
woman's club of a certain well-known set- 
tlement, a hat upon which every other 
woman riveted envious eyes. 

The handsome club woman's address 
dealt with the necessity of neighborly and 
sisterly kindness among women. She illus- 
trated the lecture with many pretty stories, 
and closed it with an earnest exhortation 
to all her listeners to be friendly whenever 
possible. She, herself, would always be 
more than glad, she would be grateful, if 
opportunities for proving her own attitude 
in this connection should occur. The next 
morning brought her a note from one of 
her eager listeners, a note borne by a dirty, 
neglected little child. 

"Dear Mrs. B ," the note ran, being 

translated into understandable English and 
spelling, "you said yesterday you'd be glad 
to do anything you could to help us. Will 
you lend me the hat you wore at the meeting 
for my sister, who works in a millinery 
store, to copy? I'll send it back to you to- 
morrow, if you'll be so kind to me, and be 
ever so much obliged." 

The richer woman, after a brief struggle 
with herself, loaned the precious bit of 
millinery, which was duly caricatured, in 
Halsted Street fashion, by the borrower's 
sister, and worn with much delight and 
satisfaction by the borrower herself. And 
— here is where the innate nobility of char- 
acter mentioned makes its appearance — the 
woman owning the caricatured "bunnit" 
has continued to wear it weekly when visit- 
ing that particular club. 



Some of the scientific publications are 
just now giving no little space to a dis- 
cussion of a law of heredity which has been 
advanced to govern the recurrence of moral 
types in succeeding generations regardless 
of intermediate educational influences. 
"I tell you this," time and again, said Jerry 
MacCaulay, "you can't really convert a 
man unless he had a good mother." 

And MacCaulay, before he became famous 
for his mission, was equally notorious as 
one of the bad men of New York. 

The Looker On. 



DLENTYe^ 
IDOSITI' 



t^T 



\> 



Thirteen thousand positions were filled by 
the Remington Employment Departments dur- 
ing the year 1902 in the cities of New York 
and Chicago alone. Every city in America 
shows a similar proportion 

GOOD PAY 

Remember that the user of a low-priced 

writing machine always wants a low-priced 

stenographer. The best positions are secured 
by the competent operators of the 

REMINGTON 



REMINGTON TYPEWRITER CO., 
327 Broadway, New YorK. 



Please mention Charittes when writing to advertisers. 



Charities Directory 

FOR 1903 

Out This Week 



Condensed statement of the Chari- 
table, Educational and Eeligious 
Eesources of and for Greater Kew 
York 

PRICE, ONE DOLLAR 



On sale at any office of the New Yokk 
Chakity Organization Society ; or by 
mail, postage prepaid, from the office of 
the Charities Directory 

105 EAST TWENTY-SECOND STREET, 

NEW YORK 



The SHERWOOD 
Eye, Ear, Nose, and 
Throat Sanatorium 

LOCATED AT 

2064 FIFTH AVENUE 

Near 127th Street 

Is a non-charitable institution for the 
examination and treatment of diseases 
of the Eye, Ear, Nose, and Throat. 
It is especially adapted to fill a want 
for special treatment by the wage- 
earning part of the community, who 
cannot afford to pay a high fee and 
are not willing to apply for charitable 
treatment at dispensaries or hospitals. 
It is entirely self-supporting. Send 
for circular, mentioning Charities. 

A. L. SCOTT, M. D., Prop. 



If 

You 

Want 

To 

Be 

Sure 

You 



EVERY HOME 

should own the New Edition. 
Hundreds of the most eminent 
authorities agree that it is the 
most accurate and useful diction- 
ary published. 

It gives correct answers to ques- 
tions concerning words, places, 
notable persons, fiction, etc. 

The New Edition has 25,000 
new words and phrases, 2364 
pages, 5000 illustrations. 



Let Us Send You Free 

" A Test in Pronunciation " 

which affords a pleasant and in- 
structive evening's entertain- 
ment. 
Illustrated pamphlet also free. 

G. £ C. MERRIAM CO., Publishers, 

Springfield, Mass. 




WEBSTER'S 



INTERNATIONAL DICTIONARY 

NEW AND ENLARGED EDITION 



DONATIONS OF 

OLD CLOTHES, NEW UNDERWEAR, 

AND RAGS TO BE WASHED AND DYED 

FOR RUGS AND CARPETS 

ARE DESIRED BY THE 

Workroomsfor Unskilled Women 

« OF THE « 

Charity Organization Society, 
5J6 West 28th Street. 

Cast-off clothing is greatly needed. Old garments 
and rags are used to supply work for those who would 
otherwise need relief, and the work is made a means of 
training for self-support. 

The Charity Organization Society will send for pack- 
ages. Address, 105 East 22d Street. Telephone, 380 
18th Street. If parcels are sent, kindly mark them for 
"The Workrooms for Unskilled Women," 516 West 
28th Street. 

TUBERCULOSIS 

COMMUNICABLE, 

PREVENTABLE, 

CURABLE, 

By Addison W. Baird, M. D. 

Popular presentation of the subject, with 30 illus- 
trations. Published by James T. Dougherty, 409-411 
West 59th Street, New York. 

PAPER, 10 CENTS, POST=PAID. 



Please mention Charities when writing to advertisers. 



You are again considering the subject of 
Life Insurance ? 

You want the best that money will buy! 

You are inclined to the METROPOLITAN 
as the Company best able to give satisfactory 
results. 




Your attention is called to the Twenty«Pay= 
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Particulars on application. 



Metropolitan kif<? Insurance Company, 

1 Madison Avenue, New York. 



Incorporated by the State of New York. 



Please mention Charities when writing to advertisers. 



ANNUAL MEETING 

NATIONAL CONFERENCE 



OF 



CHARITIES and CORRECTIONS 

Atlanta, Ga., May 6- J 2, J 903 

One Fare Round Trip 

PLUS TWENTY-FIVE CENTS 

= — VIA 

QUEEN & CRESCENT ROUTE 

AND 

SOUTHERN RAILWAY 

TICKETS ON SALE MAY 4th AND 5th, GOOD RETURNING 

MAY J6th, 1903 

Double Daily Service 

Dining and Observation Cars 

Pullman Drawing Room and Standard Sleepers 

WRITE FOR PRINTED MATTER 

WM. MANAGE, E. P. A., 296 Broadway, New York 

W. W. DUNNAVENT, T. P. A., Warren, O. 

D. P. BROWN, N. E, P. A„ Detroit 

W. A. BECKLER, N. P. A., Chicago 

V.-C RENEARSON, G. P. A., Cincinnati 

Please mention Charities when writing to advertisers. 



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